Question
Answered

In Chapters 3–6, we describe the phonology, morphology, and syntax of primarily Standard

American English. Review these chapters, and describe at least one way in which

the dialect that you speak differs (or can differ in some contexts) from the description

of the “standard” in each of these categories: phonology, inflectional morphology,

pronouns, auxiliary verbs, adverbs, prepositions.


250-450 words would be fine. 


Attached are chapters 3-6 if needed. 

4 Attachments
67 A child learning to write, or any inexperienced writer, often writes words the way that he or she says them. So a child might write samwich for sandwich or snift for sniffed . The first pronunciation, “samwich,” is common for many speakers of English, not just kids. If you are honest with yourself, do you really say the “d” when you say sandwich fast in natural speech? You would be in good company if you do not. Even if you do pronounce the “d,” where did that “d” go for many speak- ers of English? The answer is that speakers delete the “d” to simplify what would otherwise be a string of three consonants. That said, there remains another question: with the “d” deleted, why does the “n” turn into an “m”? What happens is that the sound /n/ becomes more like the sound /w/ that follows it, and when /n/ becomes more like /w/, it turns into /m/. The study of the English sound system, or English phonology, explains how /m/ is more like /w/ than /n/ is. (As a side note, sometimes it’s hard to grasp how sounds work in relation to one another without sounding them out. We encourage you to do so—you’ll discover, for example, the simi- lar position of your lips in making /m/ and /w/ much more efficiently by sounding them out than purely by reading paragraphs about the details of their pronunciation.) What about snift and sniffed ? We all pronounce sniffed with a final “t.” We learn that for most verbs the past-tense ending is spelled - ed , and many of us stop paying attention to the fact that this past-tense ending does not always sound like a “d.” There are, in fact, three different pronunciations of the - ed ending: one with /t/ (e.g., sniffed ), one with /d/ (e.g., snored ), and one with a full extra syllable Chapter 3 English Phonology The word sandwich sometimes gets spelled samwich , as it is on this sign. What happens phonologically with this word to cause the samwich spelling?
Background image of page 01
37 pages
104 B loggers have created not only a new genre of writing—the blog—but a new world of words as well. According to the new edition of the OED , the word blog is first cited in 1999. It began as the compound weblog and then was shortened by losing most of the first syllable. The noun blog quickly gave birth to the verb to blog , which in turn allowed the creation of blogging (the activ- ity), blogger (the person), and blogosphere (the network of bloggers and blog read- ers all over the Web). The American Dialect Society elected blog as the word most likely to succeed from the year 2002. A few years ago, one particular blogger created the blog www.whatevs.org, on which he introduced an array of new words—usually not completely made- up words, but derivations of already existing English words. For example, the shortened form whatevs can replace whatever when it is used to express the lack of a strong opinion. The shortened form evs is often used for ever : “Blogging is the best way to pass time evs.” Addish for ‘in addition’ represents a shortening with a respelling of the final sound as -ish to form a new word. Visitors to the site report that they now find themselves using evs , addish , obvs (‘obviously’), and other new words not only in their own blogging but in their speech as well. None of these new words may stick. But then again, some of them might gain enough currency to make it into a dictionary some day. After all, blog already has. Of particular interest for this chapter is that most of these “new” words are made from “old” parts. Occasionally a new word, like quark, is completely made up and English speakers have borrowed many words from other languages over the centuries. But the majority of new words in English involve the combination, short- ening, or other manipulation of already existing English components. We Chapter 4 English Morphology Blogs, like www.whatevs.org, have introduced or popularized new words in the English language, such as the word whatevs .
Background image of page 01
30 pages
134 F rom 1973 to 1985, forty-one different Schoolhouse Rock educational car- toon shorts aired weekend mornings between cartoons on the ABC tele- vision network. As children sang along, they learned how a bill becomes a law, how multiplication works, and how different parts of speech function. These Schoolhouse Rock shorts were revived more than a decade later, and you may remember songs such as “A Noun Is a Person, Place, or Thing” or “Conjunction Junction,” where conjunctions are “hooking up words and phrases and clauses.” The set of these enormously successful cartoon shorts about language, known together as Grammar Rock , captures some fundamentals about English parts of speech: conjunctions really do hook up words, phrases, and clauses, even if kids don’t know a clause from a cracker. But, for obvious reasons, these cartoons do not provide sufficiently complex descriptions of any of these parts of speech. For example, nouns are not persons, places, or things; some aren’t even words for persons, places, or things. How would you classify, for example, being , nothing- ness , karma , metaphor , or phoneme? Are these things in any conventional sense? And while all conjunctions are “hook ups,” are they all equivalent? Isn’t there a big difference between the function of and and that of because ? Many college students feel shaky about their control of grammar, despite the Grammar Rock songs stuck in their heads. One Calvin and Hobbes cartoon captures this discomfort well. Calvin says to Hobbes, “I need help on my homework. What’s a pronoun?” Hobbes replies, “A noun that lost its amateur status.” With a dubious look but a scribbling pen, Calvin remarks, “Maybe I can get a point for originality.” All students know that they should know English grammar, but few feel that they have command over it—however much or little grammar they were taught Chapter 5 Calvin and Hobbes. ©1996 Watterson. Dist. by Universal Press Syndicate. Reprinted with permission. All rights reserved. English Syntax: The Grammar of Words
Background image of page 01
37 pages
171 T he man who hunts ducks out occasionally. Did you read that sentence at least a couple of times before moving on to this one? Although you may not believe it, it is a grammatical sentence of English. It is called a “garden path sen- tence” because it leads you down the proverbial garden path, only for you to discover that you have misparsed the sentence—that is, misinterpreted the function of some of the words. You probably read who hunts ducks as a com- plete clause, all modifying the subject The man . You were, therefore, expect- ing another verb to come on the heels of ducks to indicate what the man who hunts ducks did: perhaps he headed out into the fields or decided to give up the sport. You were not expecting the words out occasionally —neither of which is a verb. As a speaker of English, you know that you need another verb to complete the main clause, so you realize something has gone terribly wrong in your reading of this sentence. If you are like the subjects described in the study in Steven Pinker’s book The Language Instinct (1994), your eyes probably jumped back to the potentially ambiguous word ducks to see if you could find a verb for the main clause. And sure enough: ducks can be reparsed as a third-person singular verb in the pres- ent tense, rather than as a plural noun functioning as the object of hunts , such that the sentence describes a man (who hunts) who ducks out. So what hap- pened in your original reading of the sentence? Because the verb hunt often functions transitively (i.e., it takes a direct object), you probably used your experience of that frequency to make a well-informed guess about how to understand the grammatically ambiguous word ducks , interpreting it as the Chapter 6 English Syntax: Phrases, Clauses, and Sentences Is this man hunting ducks or ducking out? The syntax of garden path sentences can lead us astray.
Background image of page 01
43 pages
Answer & Explanation
Verified Solved by verified expert
Rated

e vel laoreet ac, dictu

usce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel

Unlock full access to Course Hero

Explore over 16 million step-by-step answers from our library

Subscribe to view answer
1 Attachment
Language Use.docx
docx