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Anniston, Alabama, is a location known for its contamination with

PCBs. You may research more via the Internet or the CSU Online Library with search terms such as PCB and Anniston, Alabama. Compose a research paper that includes, but is not limited to, the following:
1. Include the background of the contamination.
2.  Describe the current status in Anniston.
3. Discuss the effects of PCB on human health and to the environment.
4. Include past, current, and future remediation programs of Anniston.
5. Discuss the impact this contamination has had on Anniston residents.
6. Include your perspective of how this situation would be handled in other parts of the world where regulatory enforcement is weaker than in the U.S.
APA formatted research paper should be a minimum of three pages in length, not including your title page and reference page. You are required to use a minimum of two scholarly sources; TWO sources are attached!

This Provisional PDF corresponds to the article as it appeared upon acceptance. Fully formatted PDF and full text (HTML) versions will be made available soon. Analysis of the effects of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorinated pesticides on serum lipid levels in residents of Anniston, Alabama Environmental Health 2013, 12 :108 doi:10.1186/1476-069X-12-108 Zafar Aminov ([email protected]) Richard F Haase ([email protected]) Marian Pavuk ([email protected]) David O Carpenter ([email protected]) ISSN 1476-069X Article type Research Submission date 24 July 2013 Acceptance date 3 December 2013 Publication date 11 December 2013 Article URL http://www.ehjournal.net/content/12/1/108 This peer-reviewed article can be downloaded, printed and distributed freely for any purposes (see copyright notice below). Articles in Environmental Health are listed in PubMed and archived at PubMed Central. For information about publishing your research in Environmental Health or any BioMed Central journal, go to http://www.ehjournal.net/authors/instructions/ For information about other BioMed Central publications go to http://www.biomedcentral.com/ Environmental Health © 2013 Aminov et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0 ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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Analysis of the effects of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorinated pesticides on serum lipid levels in residents of Anniston, Alabama Zafar Aminov 1 Email: [email protected] Richard F Haase 1 Email: [email protected] Marian Pavuk 2 Email: [email protected] David O Carpenter 1* * Corresponding author Email: [email protected] Anniston Environmental Health Research Consortium 1 Institute for Health and the Environment, University at Albany, 5 University Place, Rensselaer, NY 12144, USA 2 Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, GA, USA Abstract Background Anniston, Alabama is the site of a former Monsanto plant where polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were manufactured from 1929 until 1971. Residents of Anniston are known to have elevated levels of PCBs. The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that levels of the various lipid components (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides) are differentially associated with concentrations of total PCBs and total pesticides, and further that different congeners, congener groups and different pesticides do not have identical associations in serum samples obtained from Anniston residents in a cross- sectional study. Methods Fasting serum samples were obtained from 575 residents of Anniston who were not on any lipid-lowering medication and were analyzed for 35 PCB congeners, nine chlorinated pesticides, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. Associations between toxicant concentrations and lipid levels were determined using multiple linear regression analysis.
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ESSAY ADMINISTRATION OF THE 2003 TOLBERT PC B SETTLEMENT IN ANNISTON, ALABAMA: AN ATTEMPTED COLLABORATIVE AND HOLISTIC REMEDY Edgar C. Gentle, Ilf ABSTRACT The author was the court-appointed administrator of a $300 million dollar settlement between 18,000 claimants and Solutia, Inc., Monsanto Company, and Pharmacia Corporation (Tolbert Defendants), ' respecting polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Anniston, Alabama. In addition to paying for claimed personal injury and property damages, the settlement paid for a medical clinic, and sponsored scientiflc research and community reconciliation that have begun to provide a holistic remedy. Impediments to case administration were disparate payments to claimants in other set- tlements, liens on 30% of claimants, and claimant poverty. A collaborative model was used to design the settlement, to help ensure fairness, and to avoid a Rube Goldberg settlement matrix. Settlement design and distribu- tion documents are found at www.tolbertqsf.com. ABSTRACT 1249 INTRODUCTION 1250 I. THE SETTLEMENT CLIMATE OF CONTROVERSY 1251 * Bom February 17, 1953, in Birmingham, Alabama. B.S., 1975, Auburn University; M.S., 1977, University of Miami; B.A., 1979, M.A., 1979, Pembroke College, Oxford University, England (Rhodes Scholar); J.D., 1981, The University of Alabama School of Law. Admitted Alabama State Bar, 1981. Managing Partner of law firm. Gentle, Pickens & Turner, Birmingham, Alabama. AT&T Senior Staff Attorney at Divestiture, 1983 to 1986; Escrow Agent for MDL 926 Breast Implant Set- tlement, 1992 to present; Tax Counsel to Alabama Governor Siegelman, 1999 to 2000; Claims Admin- istrator of Tolbert PCB Settlement, 2003 to present. My heartfelt thanks to the Honorable U.W. Cle- mon for providing me the opportunity to administer this case. 1. Of the Tolbert Defendants, Pharmacia Corporation is the successor of the Old Monsanto Corporation; with a mere name change, Solutia, Inc. was spun off by the Old Monsanto Corporation in 1997; and Monsanto Company was created in 2000. 1249
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1250 Alabama Law Review [Vol. 60:5:1249 IL CLAIMANT PAYMENT PROGRAM DESIGN BY COLLABORATION 1256 III. FIELDING APPEALS, TAMING THE SEA OF LIENS, AND SIMPLIFYING TAXES 1261 IV. CRAFTING A HOLISTIC REMEDY TO CURE THE LONG-TERM HEALTH DILEMMA AND BEGIN TO RECONCILE THE COMMUNITY 1262 V. SOLVING THE COMMUNICATIONS, OVERHEAD, AND SURPLUS PROBLEMS 1263 CONCLUSION 1264 INTRODUCTION In 2001, a lawsuit was brought in federal district court before the Ho- norable U.W. Clemon against the Tolbert Defendants with respect to PCBs manufactured over a span of forty years in Anniston, Alabama.^ Instead of a class action, the case consisted of an aggregation of 18,000 individual claimants, with 78% of the claimants born before June 30, 1985, and classified as adults, and the later bom 22% of the claimants classified as children. The claimants live (or previously lived) in Anniston, Alabama, near a manufacturing plant that formerly produced PCBs—now owned by Solutia, Inc. but previously owned by Pharmacia Corporation— and claim to have suffered property damages and personal injury resulting from PCB exposure.^ 90% of the claimants are African-American, and 80% earn less than 200% of the federal poverty level—the case resulted from the manufacture of PCBs in a poor, mostly black neighborhood. The case illustrates unforeseen consequences of the manufacture of useful but toxic substances, such as Agent Orange." The Tolbert case settled in September 2003 in tandem with the sister Alabama state court case, Abemathy v. Monsanto Co.^ Each case settled 2. Oliver v. Monsanto Co., No. 2:02-CV-836-UWC (N.D. Ala. 2002); Tolbert v. Monsanto Co., No. 2:01-CV-1407-UWC (N.D. Ala. 2001). 3. PCBs were used in hundreds of popular commercial applications, including electrical trans- formers and capacitors, hydraulic equipment, and paints, and many other industrial products. PCBs were manufactured in Anniston from 1929 until 1971. The manufacture and sale of PCBs was subse- quently prohibited by the Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976, 15 U.S.C. § 2605(e) (2000), due to PCBs' resistance to environmental breakdown and potential health concerns. The effect of PCBs on human health remains greatly debated. However, it has been estab- lished that PCBs cause chloracne to the skin, and there is also evidence that PCBs tend to cause cancer in animals and impact animal immune, reproductive, and endocrine systems. See AGENCY FOR TOXIC SUBSTANCE & DISEASE REGISTRY, U.S. DEPT. OF HEALTH & HUMAN SERVS., PUBLIC HEALTH STATEMENT: POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS 5 (2000), http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tpl7-cl- b.pdf [hereinafter PUBLIC HEALTH STATEMENT: POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS]. 4. As noted by Yale Professor, Peter H. Schuck: "In the Agent Orange case, we confront an unprecedented challenge to our legal system: a future in which the law must grapple with the chemical revolution and help us live comfortably with it." PETER H. SCHUCK, AGENT ORANGE ON TRIAL: MASS TOXIC DISASTERS IN THE COURTS 6 (1986). 5. No. CV-2001-832 (Ala. Cir. Ct. 2002).
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