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how can i solve the first reaction question im confused i need...

how can i solve the first reaction question im confused i need help.

Arnett (2002): Strategic Reading Worksheet

Reaction Questions: I want you to REACT to the claim, using the questions to help you. In 150-250 words, discuss how Arnett supports the claim, the strength of his support, and why you agree/disagree. Use examples from your own experience or personal observations to support your reaction.

#1

Arnett makes a distinction between the terms bicultural identity and hybrid identity. He claims that, in certain contexts, globalization may be causing the latter, rather than the former. Explain what he means by this distinction, how he supports his claim, and evaluate his support. Then, drawing on your own experience, agree or disagree with his claim and explain your reasoning.




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The Psychology of Globalization Jeffrey Jensen Arnett University Park, Maryland The influence of globalization on psychological functioning is examined. First, descriptions of how globalization is occurring in various world regions are presented. Then the psychological consequences of globalization are described, with a focus on identity issues. Specifically, it is argued that most people worldwide now develop a bicultural identity that combines their local identity with an identity linked to the global culture; that identity confusion may be increas- ing among young people in non-Western cultures as a result of globalization; that some people join self-selected cultures to maintain an identity that is separate from the global culture; and that a period of emerging adulthood increasingly extends identity explorations beyond adoles- cence, through the mid- to late twenties. G lobalization has existed for many centuries as a process by which cultures influence one another and become more alike through trade, immigra- tion, and the exchange of information and ideas. However, in recent decades, the degree and intensity of the connec- tions among different cultures and different world regions have accelerated dramatically because of advances in tele- communications and a rapid increase in economic and financial interdependence worldwide. For example, exports as a proportion of world gross domestic product grew from 8% in 1950 to 26% by 1998 (“The Battle in Seattle,” 1999), and international travel has increased by 700% since 1960 (Held, 1998). Consequently, in recent years, globalization has become one of the most widely used terms to describe the current state of the world. Globalization encompasses a wide range of issues and phenomena. In the proliferation of recent books on the topic, the focus has been mainly on economics (e.g., Fried- man, 2000; Gray, 1998), but books on globalization have also addressed issues such as the influence of globalization on urban life (e.g., Sassen, 1998) and on cultural practices (e.g., Appadurai, 2000; Giddens, 2000; Tomlinson, 1999). However, psychology’s contribution to an understanding of globalization has been mostly indirect. Psychological theory and research on acculturation, identity, and other topics have implications for the effects of globalization, but thus far these implications have not been thoroughly described. In this article, I discuss how globalization influences psychological functioning. I argue that globalization has its primary psychological influence on issues of identity. However, my goal is not only to support this thesis but to provoke thought and investigation among psychologists on the topic of the psychology of globalization. Because psy- chologists have rarely addressed globalization directly, there are at least as many questions as answers. For this reason, I end each section of the article by proposing some research questions. My focus is on issues related to adolescence, because adolescents have a pivotal role in the process of globaliza- tion (Dasen, 2000; Schlegel, 2001). Unlike children, ado- lescents have enough maturity and autonomy to pursue information and experiences outside the confines of their families. Unlike adults, they are not yet committed to a definite way of life and have not yet developed ingrained habits of belief and behavior; they are more open to what is new and unusual. They tend to have more interest than either children or adults in global media—recorded music, movies, television, the Internet—and, to a considerable extent, global media are the leading edge of globalization (Schlegel, 2001), the foot in the door that opens the way for other changes in beliefs and behavior. According to a 1998 United Nations Human Development Report (United Na- tions Development Programme, 1998), market researchers now try to sell to “global teens” (p. 6) because urban adolescents worldwide follow similar consumption pat- terns and have similar preferences for “global brands” (p. 6) of music, videos, T-shirts, soft drinks, and so on. Ado- lescents are also viewed by adults in some cultures as being especially vulnerable to the allurements of the global cul- ture, and adolescent problems such as substance use and premarital pregnancy are sometimes blamed by adults on the intrusion of Western values through globalization (Nsa- menang, 2002; Stevenson & Zusho, 2002; Welti, 2002). The focus on adolescence highlights the identity is- sues that are of key importance in the psychology of globalization, given that identity issues have long been regarded as central to adolescent development. However, I also include information on people of other ages, and even the material on adolescents has implications for other ages. Before proceeding, it is important to specify both the extent and the limitations of globalization. Although glob- alization has intensified dramatically in recent years, the world is a long way from being one homogeneous global culture. In many ways, the gaps in technology and lifestyle between rich and poor countries and between rural and urban areas within countries have persisted or even grown Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Jeffrey Jensen Arnett, 4409 Van Buren Street, University Park, MD 20782. E-mail: [email protected] 774 October 2002 American Psychologist Copyright 2002 by the American Psychological Association, Inc. 0003-066X/02/$5.00 Vol. 57, No. 10, 774–783 DOI: 10.1037//0003-066X.57.10.774
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