The Psychology of Globalization This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers. This article...
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how can i solve the first reaction question im confused i need help.Arnett (2002): Strategic Reading Worksheet

Reaction Questions: I want you to REACT to the claim, using the questions to help you. In 150-250 words, discuss how Arnett supports the claim, the strength of his support, and why you agree/disagree. Use examples from your own experience or personal observations to support your reaction.

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Arnett makes a distinction between the terms bicultural identity and hybrid identity. He claims that, in certain contexts, globalization may be causing the latter, rather than the former. Explain what he means by this distinction, how he supports his claim, and evaluate his support. Then, drawing on your own experience, agree or disagree with his claim and explain your reasoning.




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The Psychology of Globalization Jeffrey Jensen Arnett University Park, Maryland The influence of globalization on psychological functioning is examined. First, descriptions of how globalization is occurring in various world regions are presented. Then the psychological consequences of globalization are described, with a focus on identity issues. Specifically, it is argued that most people worldwide now develop a bicultural identity that combines their local identity with an identity linked to the global culture; that identity confusion may be increas- ing among young people in non-Western cultures as a result of globalization; that some people join self-selected cultures to maintain an identity that is separate from the global culture; and that a period of emerging adulthood increasingly extends identity explorations beyond adoles- cence, through the mid- to late twenties. G lobalization has existed for many centuries as a process by which cultures influence one another and become more alike through trade, immigra- tion, and the exchange of information and ideas. However, in recent decades, the degree and intensity of the connec- tions among different cultures and different world regions have accelerated dramatically because of advances in tele- communications and a rapid increase in economic and financial interdependence worldwide. For example, exports as a proportion of world gross domestic product grew from 8% in 1950 to 26% by 1998 (“The Battle in Seattle,” 1999), and international travel has increased by 700% since 1960 (Held, 1998). Consequently, in recent years, globalization has become one of the most widely used terms to describe the current state of the world. Globalization encompasses a wide range of issues and phenomena. In the proliferation of recent books on the topic, the focus has been mainly on economics (e.g., Fried- man, 2000; Gray, 1998), but books on globalization have also addressed issues such as the influence of globalization on urban life (e.g., Sassen, 1998) and on cultural practices (e.g., Appadurai, 2000; Giddens, 2000; Tomlinson, 1999). However, psychology’s contribution to an understanding of globalization has been mostly indirect. Psychological theory and research on acculturation, identity, and other topics have implications for the effects of globalization, but thus far these implications have not been thoroughly described. In this article, I discuss how globalization influences psychological functioning. I argue that globalization has its primary psychological influence on issues of identity. However, my goal is not only to support this thesis but to provoke thought and investigation among psychologists on the topic of the psychology of globalization. Because psy- chologists have rarely addressed globalization directly, there are at least as many questions as answers. For this reason, I end each section of the article by proposing some research questions. My focus is on issues related to adolescence, because adolescents have a pivotal role in the process of globaliza- tion (Dasen, 2000; Schlegel, 2001). Unlike children, ado- lescents have enough maturity and autonomy to pursue information and experiences outside the confines of their families. Unlike adults, they are not yet committed to a definite way of life and have not yet developed ingrained habits of belief and behavior; they are more open to what is new and unusual. They tend to have more interest than either children or adults in global media—recorded music, movies, television, the Internet—and, to a considerable extent, global media are the leading edge of globalization (Schlegel, 2001), the foot in the door that opens the way for other changes in beliefs and behavior. According to a 1998 United Nations Human Development Report (United Na- tions Development Programme, 1998), market researchers now try to sell to “global teens” (p. 6) because urban adolescents worldwide follow similar consumption pat- terns and have similar preferences for “global brands” (p. 6) of music, videos, T-shirts, soft drinks, and so on. Ado- lescents are also viewed by adults in some cultures as being especially vulnerable to the allurements of the global cul- ture, and adolescent problems such as substance use and premarital pregnancy are sometimes blamed by adults on the intrusion of Western values through globalization (Nsa- menang, 2002; Stevenson & Zusho, 2002; Welti, 2002). The focus on adolescence highlights the identity is- sues that are of key importance in the psychology of globalization, given that identity issues have long been regarded as central to adolescent development. However, I also include information on people of other ages, and even the material on adolescents has implications for other ages. Before proceeding, it is important to specify both the extent and the limitations of globalization. Although glob- alization has intensified dramatically in recent years, the world is a long way from being one homogeneous global culture. In many ways, the gaps in technology and lifestyle between rich and poor countries and between rural and urban areas within countries have persisted or even grown Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Jeffrey Jensen Arnett, 4409 Van Buren Street, University Park, MD 20782. E-mail: [email protected] 774 October 2002 American Psychologist Copyright 2002 by the American Psychological Association, Inc. 0003-066X/02/$5.00 Vol. 57, No. 10, 774–783 DOI: 10.1037//0003-066X.57.10.774
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in recent years, even as poor countries have moved in the direction of rich countries. Table 1 provides an illustration of this pattern. It shows that enrollment in secondary school has increased all over the world during the past 20 years but remains con- siderably lower in developing countries than in industrial- ized countries. Overall, the proportion of adolescents in secondary school in developing countries rose from 23% in 1970 to 52% in 1997 (United Nations Educational, Scien- tific, and Cultural Organization, 1999), but the proportion is now above 90% in industrialized countries. Table 2 provides some information on technology, which is often portrayed as the driving force behind globalization. Again, an increase in access to technology has taken place all over the world in recent decades, but far more in some parts of the world than in others. There is also considerable varia- tion within regions and within countries, especially be- tween rural and urban areas (United Nations Development Programme, 2001). Thus, globalization is influencing every part of the world, but cultures differ greatly in how much they have been affected by it. This article is based on the premise that globalization is influencing many of the world’s people and is likely to influence an increasing number of them in the years to come. Questions for future research include the following: First, how should globalization be defined for empirical purposes? How should the effects of globalization be mea- sured for a given population, and how should exposure to globalization be measured on the level of the individual? Second, what age differences exist in exposure to global- ization and in responses to it? The Process of Globalization: Regional Snapshots Let us proceed with illustrations of how globalization is taking place in various regions of the world. In Latin America (Welti, 2002), most of the population has access to global information through radio and television, which now reach into even the small towns. People are aware of distant wars and the intimate details of the lives and deaths of global celebrities. Young people copy the cloth- ing and hairstyles of popular singers from the United States, as well as Latin America, and learn the lyrics of songs in English even if they do not understand them. E-mail is the preferred form of communication among urban middle-class adolescents. However, it remains true that in rural areas, education ends early and the marriage age is young (Economic Com- mission for Latin America and the Caribbean, 2000). In these areas, many groups still celebrate a girl’s quincinera when she turns 15, thus signifying that she has reached marriageable age. In urban areas, globalization is more evident but is not always welcome. There have been wide- spread protests—led by university students in Buenos Aires, Mexico City, and Santiago, among other cities— against the economic disruptions caused by shifts in global financial markets and against the cutbacks in government services demanded by global lending institutions, with globalization specified as the enemy (Welti, 2002). In Arab countries (Booth, 2002), young people in the middle and upper classes in urban areas are similar in many ways to young people in the West, with access to extended education and a variety of leisure opportunities, including dating, playing electronic games, and surfing the Internet. Cafe ´s are popular meeting places for playing board games Table 1 Changes in Secondary School Enrollment in Selected Countries Country 1980 (% enrolled) Latest year (% enrolled) Boys Girls Boys Girls United States 91 92 98 97 Germany 93 87 99 99 Italy 73 70 94 95 Poland 75 80 98 97 Argentina 53 62 73 81 Egypt 66 41 83 73 China 54 37 74 67 Turkey 44 24 68 48 Mexico 51 46 64 64 India 39 20 59 39 Nigeria 25 13 36 30 Note. The data are from the Population Reference Bureau (2000). Percent- ages reflect the proportion of students enrolled in secondary school in the applicable age group in each country. Jeffrey Jensen Arnett 775 October 2002 American Psychologist
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