In a case-control study of the association between intravenous drug use and HIV infection, the investigators discovered after the study that the case...
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In a case-control study of the association between intravenous drug use and HIV infection, the investigators discovered after the study that the case group tended to under-report their drug use due to fears arising from previous convictions for drug-related violations. Under-reporting was not a problem in the control group.

Selection bias
Confounding
Sampling error
Measurement bias (Observation bias)


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