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Dear. Caleglobal001,I hope you are doing well today.Please see below attachments for your information.

I've already asked you my first issue.

At that time, I felt you are really thoughtful and kind.

So I made decision to propose you to do my project if you are available.

Eng is not my mother tongue. Actually, I have many problem to complete my project with language barrier.

Would you like to give me big help??

I want to ask you to do 5 more projects for this course except previous one.

I will pay for your big help.

Please contact me this email address. &[email protected]"

Thank you. 

MEE 5801, Industrial and Hazardous Waste Management 1 Course Description Industrial and Hazardous Waste Management includes the study of solid and hazardous wastes and how such wastes are managed in modern society. Topics covered are the generation, treatment, and disposal of wastes generated by the non- commercial and industrial segments of society. Course Textbook Bahadori, A. (2014). Waste management in the chemical and petroleum industries. West Sussex, United Kingdom: Wiley. Course Learning Outcomes Upon completion of this course, students should be able to: 1. Assess the fundamental science and engineering principles applicable to the management and treatment of solid and hazardous wastes. 2. Examine the key attributes of solid and hazardous wastes. 3. Evaluate laws, standards, and best practices related to hazardous wastes. 4. Examine leadership and management principles related to industrial and hazardous waste issues. 5. Evaluate operations and technologies related to industrial and hazardous wastes. 6. Assess the impact of industrial and hazardous waste on human populations. 7. Solve hazardous waste related problems through collaborative methods of problem solving. Credits Upon completion of this course, the students will earn three (3) hours of college credit. Course Structure 1. Study Guide: Each unit contains a Study Guide that provides students with the learning outcomes, unit lesson, required reading assignments, and supplemental resources. 2. Learning Outcomes: Each unit contains Learning Outcomes that specify the measurable skills and knowledge students should gain upon completion of the unit. 3. Unit Lesson: Each unit contains a Unit Lesson, which discusses lesson material. 4. Reading Assignments: Units I-VII contain Reading Assignments from one or more chapters from the textbook. 5. Suggested Reading: Suggested Readings are listed in the Unit I-V and VIII study guides. Students are encouraged to read the resources listed if the opportunity arises, but they will not be tested on their knowledge of the Suggested Readings. 6. Unit Assessments: This course contains eight Unit Assessments, one to be completed at the end of each unit. Assessments are composed of written-response questions. 7. Unit Assignments: Students are required to submit for grading Unit Assignments in Units I-III, V, VI, and VIII. Specific information and instructions regarding these assignments are provided below. Grading rubrics are included with each assignment. Specific information about accessing these rubrics is provided below. MEE 5801, Industrial and Hazardous Waste Management Course Syllabus
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MEE 5801, Industrial and Hazardous Waste Management 2 8. Ask the Professor: This communication forum provides you with an opportunity to ask your professor general or course content related questions. 9. Student Break Room: This communication forum allows for casual conversation with your classmates. CSU Online Library The CSU Online Library is available to support your courses and programs. The online library includes databases, journals, e-books, and research guides. These resources are always accessible and can be reached through the library webpage. To access the library, log into the myCSU Student Portal, and click on “CSU Online Library.” You can also access the CSU Online Library from the “My Library” button on the course menu for each course in Blackboard. The CSU Online Library offers several reference services. E-mail ( [email protected] ) and telephone (1.877.268.8046) assistance is available Monday – Thursday from 8 am to 5 pm and Friday from 8 am to 3 pm. The library’s chat reference service, Ask a Librarian , is available 24/7; look for the chat box on the online library page. Librarians can help you develop your research plan or assist you in finding relevant, appropriate, and timely information. Reference requests can include customized keyword search strategies, links to articles, database help, and other services. Unit Assignments Unit I Project Over the course of these eight units, we will be developing a course project. We will do a single section of the course project in every unit by completing one section of the course project, and then adding to it with the subsequent work in the following unit. This unit work will be in the form of unit projects. In following units (Units II, III, V, VI, and VIII), the Unit Lesson will contain an interactive model that will enable you to effectively select the most appropriate equipment and technology to engineer into your waste management system design for the facility. It is imperative that you read the Unit Lessons within the study guide in each unit, use the interactive model, and consider the current (as well as previous) material from Bahadori’s (2014) textbook in every unit. This project will serve as a comprehensive demonstration of your applied learning of engineering industrial and hazardous waste treatment systems. Your course project will be to develop a document titled “A Proposal for an Industrial Waste Treatment Facility” and will serve as a simulation of your work as a contract environmental engineer for a small, rural town in the United States. The Scenario: You have contracted with the city named Small Town, USA, to design and engineer a municipal industrial waste pre- treatment facility. The city currently accepts liquid wastes from three significant industrial users (SIU): (a) a petroleum refinery, (b) an animal rendering plant, and (c) a tanker truck washout. In an effort to capture revenue, the city is currently accepting the liquid waste physically hauled by tanker truck from all three SIU members and is subsequently collecting the liquid wastes into a 300,000 gallon storage tank, pending your facility design. The city wants to be able to effectively treat and neutralize the liquid waste, landfill or reuse the sludge in an agriculture application, and discharge the neutralized treatment plant effluent water to the existing municipal (residential) wastewater plant for final treatment after successfully meeting the local limits for each analyte. The current waste profile has been analyzed at a local environmental chemical testing laboratory. This is the lab report at 30ºC: Analyte Concentration (mg/L or ppm) Local Limits (mg/L or ppm) BOD 4200 1300 COD 6000 2400 TSS 800 160 pH 5.5 6.0-9.0 TDS 5000 200 TOC 1300 150
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MEE 5801, Industrial and Hazardous Waste Management 1 Course Learning Outcomes for Unit II Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to: 1. Assess the fundamental science and engineering principles applicable to the management and treatment of solid and hazardous wastes. 1.1 Discuss the importance of particle size and water temperature as they relate to sedimentation theory. 1.2 Discuss application techniques and volume requirements as they relate to flow equalization basin design. 4. Examine leadership and management principles related to industrial and hazardous waste issues. 5. Evaluate operations and technologies related to industrial and hazardous wastes. 5.1 Compare and contrast the benefits and limitations of a conventional API oil-water separator against a rotary drum oil skimmer . 5.2 Discuss the benefits, limitations, and applications for dissolved air flotation (DAF). Reading Assignment Chapter 2: Physical Unit Operations Unit Lesson One of the potentially more frustrating aspects of designing a hazardous waste treatment and storage disposal facility (TSDF) is the management aspect of planning and budgeting for the project as well as the operational considerations with given resource requirements (human and equipment). As environmental engineers managing these types of projects, the responsibilities of even the financial forecasting (often in the form of a feasibility analysis) are often thrust upon us. Capital costs, operation and maintenance (O&M) costs, reduced waste management costs, raw material cost savings, insurance savings, changes in utilities costs, and revenue from marketable recovered byproducts may be needed in order to fully analyze the economic viability of our design (Haas & Vamos, 1995). We are going to closely consider the following aspects of planning, and incorporate these aspects into our course project (a proposal for an industrial waste treatment facility) design: (a) capital costs for construction, (b) capital costs for equipment, (c) O&M costs, and (d) forecasted revenue generation. Consequently, it is common to structure a feasibility analysis around engineering economic computations, such as the following (Haas & Vamos, 1995): °± = ° (1 + ²) ³ where PV = present value i = interest rate (expressed on a fractional basis) t = years For example, generated revenue or expenses ( P ) may occur at ( t ) years in the future with a given interest rate ( i ), providing a present value (PV). This is also called an internal rate of return and is simply a function of trial and error computations (if done by hand) for modeling the feasibility of the proposed TSDF UNIT II STUDY GUIDE Leadership and Management Aspects of Industrial and Hazardous Waste Management
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MEE 5801, Industrial and Hazardous Waste Management 2 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title (Haas & Vamos, 1995). This is why contemporary calculations are often performed with spreadsheets and commercial accounting software. Still, it is important to understand the planning behind the math. Capital costs for construction are typically obtained by construction contractor estimates. These can be straightforward estimates generated by soliciting requests for proposals (RFP). As the designers, we just have to know exactly what equipment we will need in the process before we submit a solicitation for RFPs. Capital costs for equipment are also obtained by equipment vendor estimates generated by RFPs. As the designers, we must anticipate the equipment type and subsequently specify the correct pieces of equipment (including tanks, mixers, filters, etc.) in the RFP solicitation. O&M costs are often difficult to estimate with strong statistical confidence. However, we can calculate a reasonable estimate by doing the following steps. First, we can estimate the human resource requirements based upon the planned operational hours of the TSDF (accommodating for each sub-system within the treatment process). Second, we can sum the total energy requirements published by each piece of equipment specified in the RFP. Third, we can estimate a daily supply rate to cover anticipated operational supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment, administrative supplies). Fourth, we can estimate the staff training requirements (e.g., municipal wastewater operator license, 40-hour HAZWOPER certification) and facility operation requirements (such as Tier I or Tier II reporting requirements, municipal operating license, federal (EPA) permits, state permits) by researching requirements within the Code of Federal Regulations, including the 29 CFR (safety) and 40 CFR (environmental), and then pricing the cost of training and permitting. Forecasted revenue generation is also an estimate, but may be more predictable and subsequently demonstrate a stronger statistical confidence in our calculations. We can simply achieve this by conducting market research in the affected area of operation to understand where the wastes will be generated, and the frequency of delivery of the wastes to the TSDF. This is often achieved by an outside sales team (if an organization wants to maximize its potential for incoming wastes and subsequent revenue). As we learn about the equipment designs available to us in Bahadori’s (2014) discussion on physical treatment (pp. 25-79), start to consider what equipment you perceive would be most beneficial to your proposed system. We are going to make the same equipment decisions in the subsequent units for chemical treatment, biological treatment, general sewage treatment techniques, and solid waste treatment sections of our proposal (course project). Often, this type of exercise is best achieved by using commercially available forecasting models. As such, we are going to use a forecasting model for different equipment options in every unit as we design our own TSDF for our client. Let’s consider our first phase of equipment needs for our proposed project design. 1. Click here to access the interactive design model. 2. Closely review the influent laboratory report (lift station) against the effluent laboratory report (pop up report). As environmental engineers, our job is to design the TSDF process so that the final effluent concentrations are ultimately at or below the established local limits for the municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). 3. As we add equipment to our model (in each unit), we will see our forecasted final effluent concentrations for different analytes continue to drop and eventually meet the local limits. Use this model in your design work for your course project (proposed industrial and hazardous waste treatment facility) as you develop each section of the project in each unit. Let’s start engineering our TSDF! References Bahadori, A. (2014). Waste management in the chemical and petroleum industries. West Sussex, United Kingdom: Wiley. Haas, C., & Vamos, R. (1995). Hazardous and industrial waste treatment . Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
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MEE 5801, Industrial and Hazardous Waste Management 1 Course Learning Outcomes for Unit III Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to: 1. Assess the fundamental science and engineering principles applicable to the management and treatment of solid and hazardous wastes. 1.1 Discuss the techniques of coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation as they relate to an engineered precipitation process for wastewater treatment. 1.2 Describe the decision making to either increase the pH or decrease the pH of the wastewater treatment system in order to effectively precipitate heavy metals. 5. Evaluate operations and technologies related to industrial and hazardous wastes. 5.1 Discuss the aspects of a chemical flocculation process design that must be considered during the engineering process. 5.2 Discuss the aspects of a secondary circular clarifier process design that must be considered during the engineering process. Reading Assignment Chapter 3: Chemical Treatment Unit Lesson In this unit, we are going to learn about the technology available to us in Bahadori’s (2014) discussion on chemical treatment. As such, we are going to continue with our industrial and hazardous waste treatment system design by adding chemical treatment and disinfection processes into our system. The chemical treatment and biological treatment of the waste influents are often considered to be two of the most challenging aspects of the entire treatment system. This is due largely to the fact that chemistry and biology are statistically reliable to an average of about 95%. This means that the other five percent of the time the anticipated chemical and biological activity related to a reaction (chemical or enzymatic) may not work as forecasted. In fact, this is why it is common for us as scholar-practitioners of environmental engineering to conduct a chemical and biological hypothesis level of 95% (Trochim, 2001). We must remember that we are actually testing in research and design (R&D) activities with a statistical confidence, attempting to manipulate nature in order to effectively separate solids (metals and organic materials), gases (volatiles and semi- volatiles), synthetic liquids (organic and halogenated solvents), and water (Texas Water Utilities Association [TWUA], 1991). This is often very challenging. This is why we turn to technological solutions for many of these process options. Chemical treatment and biological treatment are causally related variables within the treatment system. In fact, both the chemical and biological treatment processes have the ability to causally affect the other in tandem (Haas & Vamos, 1995). Stated another way for clarity, the chemical treatment process often informs the biological treatment process. Additionally, the biological treatment process can also inform the chemical treatment process. For example, we may effectively reduce the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) during the chemical treatment process, but then experience still another BOD change in the process with the interruption of aerobic organisms’ enzymatic activities, such as the catalase enzyme described by Bahadori (2014). Consequently, it is very important for us as engineers to closely consider the chemical and biological treatment processes as dynamic processes, rather than static processes inherent during physical treatment (such as oil removal). Let’s start with the chemical treatment process. UNIT III STUDY GUIDE Chemical Treatment of Industrial and Hazardous Waste
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MEE 5801, Industrial and Hazardous Waste Management 2 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title Bahadori (2014) describes the chemical treatment process in terms of subsystems (e.g., precipitation, coagulation, chemical oxidation and reduction). However, he does not order these subsystems in a way that is necessarily easy for us to understand in terms of industrial and hazardous waste treatment. Instead, let’s consider the following subsystems in this specific order of treatment techniques, with the correlating principles (Haas & Vamos, 1995; TWUA, 1991) tied to each subsystem within chemical treatment (Bahadori, 2014): 1. Neutralization (pp. 82-83, 93) a. pH (acid/alkaline) and ion exchange b. acid waste neutralization (NaOH, NaOCl) c. alkaline waste neutralization (H 2 SO4, HNO 3 ) 2. Chemical oxidation and reduction (pp. 82-84) a. ion exchange (mineral softener unit, ion exchange column) b. cyanide reduction (alkaline chlorination, O 3 , or H 2 O 2 treatment) c. activated carbon adsorption (liquid phase granular absorber) d. air and steam stripping (stripping column or distillation tower) 3. Precipitation (pp. 81-82, 87-94) a. coagulation (Ca(OH) 2 , Al 2 (SO4)3, FeCl 3, in tandem with polyelectrolytes) b. flocculation (cationic polyacrylamide) c. secondary hydroxide precipitation (NaOH, Ca(OH) 2 ) 4. Solidification and stabilization (pp. 84, 90-92) a. clarifying (secondary clarifier tank) b. sludge thickening (cationic polymers) c. sludge dewatering (filter or belt press) 5. Disinfection (pp. 94-98) a. chemical agent disinfection (chlorination) b. mechanical agent disinfection (filtration) c. biological agent disinfection (activated sludge and Unit IV techniques) In order to facilitate the chemical reactions associated with neutralizing and reduction/oxidation (redox reactions) activities, it is common to use an inverted cone shaped vessel or Imhoff tank, named after Dr. Karl Imhoff (TWUA, 1991) in order to facilitate greater solids collections into the hopper-shaped bottom while using the gravimetric techniques of flocculating solids (sedimentation) from the liquid phased waste solution (Haas & Vamos, 1995). It is often in the Imhoff tank that one of the most critical aspects of the entire chemical treatment process can occur. This is the precipitation of heavy metals from the solution. Through the manipulation of the wastewater pH (neutralizing the pH from very low or very high values), the neutralization process actually initiates the redox reaction process. In turn, the redox reactions initiate the precipitation process and subsequently the solidification process. The heterogeneous equilibria of the solution becomes very important in this process, given that the equilibrium constant could be defined as the following (Haas & Vamos, 1995): This means that we could actually then define the solubility of a heavy metal by estimating the activity of a hydroxide ion (OH), and subsequently determine the required equilibrium pH of the wastewater at which a select metal would precipitate (Haas & Vamos, 1995). It is by this method that we realize most heavy metals tend to precipitate within a higher pH wastewater matrix (TWUA, 1991).
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MEE 5801, Industrial and Hazardous Waste Management 1 Course Learning Outcomes for Unit V Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to: 1. Assess the fundamental science and engineering principles applicable to the management and treatment of solid and hazardous wastes. 5. Evaluate operations and technologies related to industrial and hazardous wastes. 5.1 Discuss the necessary design features of a secondary settlement tank. 5.2 Discuss the necessary design features of a biological filtration system. Reading Assignment Chapter 7: Sewage Treatment Unit Lesson While we allow Bahadori (2014) to discuss sewage treatment systems within the context of the required reading for Unit V, we are going to spend a little time considering one of the ancillary aspects of sewage treatment involving hydrocarbon-laden liquid wastes. Bahadori (2014) discusses some areas of this topic in our suggested reading for this unit, but an overview of his presentation may help us better because of some often overlooked independent variables causally related to the safety of an industrial and hazardous waste treatment system. One of the critical variables related to the safety of a treatment system is the air quality surrounding the processes, particularly when hydrocarbons are present in the influent waste streams. As such, it is imperative that we understand the relationship of solubility of certain petroleum-related organic compounds and hydrocarbons in water, as well as their relative emission rates coming from the wastewater during the processes. By definition, a hydrocarbon is a compound containing only two elements, carbon and hydrogen (Hill & Feigl, 1987). While we were likely able to decant and remove much of the visible hydrocarbon and petroleum- related organic compounds from the wastewater during the physical treatment process of our system, the lighter organic compounds (specifically the light alkanes methane and ethane) may be persistent in the wastewater (Bahadori, 2014). These alkanes are sometimes called saturated hydrocarbons , due to the fact that each carbon atom is bonded with four hydrogen atoms with no double or triple bonds (Hill & Feigl, 1987). This is further complicated with the fact that these two compounds typically have very low solubility in water, and subsequently are emitted as gases in the process (Bahadori, 2014; Haas & Vamos, 1995). As such, these compounds pose threats to the safety of the process work environment, given that both methane and ethane have relatively low flashpoints. For example, methane (CH 4 ) has a flashpoint of −368.6ºF and lower explosive limit of 5.3%, and ethane (C 2 H 6 ) has a flashpoint of −202ºF and a lower explosive limit of 3.0% (Lewis, 1991). One could only imagine the threat of spark in this environment while operating the treatment process. Consequently, it is important for us as engineers to anticipate the aqueous solubility of these saturated hydrocarbons in the wastewater as a means of forecasting the emissions from the process. Bahadori (2014) presents his previous work to demonstrate calculated coefficients that can be used to correlate the mole fractions of individual components of a hydrocarbon-laden solution and subsequently reduced partial pressure of the solution. The tabulated coefficients are presented for both methane and ethane, with a follow-on formula for forecasting the hydrocarbon-water solubility of these two alkanes, as well UNIT V STUDY GUIDE Designing Liquid Waste Management Systems for Industrial and Hazardous Waste
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MEE 5801, Industrial and Hazardous Waste Management 2 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title as the rest of the continuous-chain alkane ranges of propane (C 3 H 8 ) through hexane (C 6 H 14 ) and hexane through decane (C 10 H 22 ) (Bahadori, 2014; Hill & Feigl, 1987). Finally, the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) can then be anticipated in units of percent by weight for each petroleum-related compound and subsequently correlated as a ratio of DOC to chemical oxygen demand (COD) or DOC/COD. As such, a predicted value for DOC derived from the DOC/COD ratio (0.267) may be calculated solely from the COD measurements (Bahadori, 2014). For example, if a petroleum-laden wastewater has a COD value of 500 ppm, the anticipated calculation for predicting DOC could be made as follows (Bahadori, 2014): DOC/COD = 0.267 Where DOC = X COD = 500 ppm then X/500 ppm = 0.267 or X = 500 ppm (0.267) so X = 133.5 ppm or DOC = 133.5 ppm Still, Bahadori (2014) presents additional tabulated information derived from historical DOC concentration measurements from refinery effluents for both organics and inorganics traditionally found in those waste streams. You may find this information useful in your own engineering work for your industrial and hazardous waste treatment system currently under design in this class. Remember that the ultimate reason for predicting the DOC concentrations in the wastewater is to mitigate hazardous environmental conditions for both humans and the ecological life surrounding and interacting with the treatment process. As such, you may consider the relative intrinsic safety of pumps, motors, mixers, and other equipment that is designed into the process as part of the system. Let’s return to our interactive model and design in the biological and secondary treatment phase of our proposed industrial and hazardous waste treatment system. 1. Click here to access the interactive design model. 2. Closely review the influent laboratory report (lift station) against the effluent laboratory report (pop up report). Remember that the goal is to design our system so that the final effluent concentrations meet the established local limits for the municipal WWTP. 3. Continue to use this model in your design work for your course project (proposed industrial and hazardous waste treatment facility) again in this unit. Notice that as you design the next-to-last phase of this system, the process is noticeably dropping the concentrations of the constituents of concern. Your process is becoming more efficient with every design phase of the system! References Bahadori, A. (2014). Waste management in the chemical and petroleum industries. West Sussex, United Kingdom: Wiley. Haas, C., & Vamos, R. (1995). Hazardous and industrial waste treatment . Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice- Hall.
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MEE 5801, Industrial and Hazardous Waste Management 1 Course Learning Outcomes for Unit VI Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to: 1. Assess the fundamental science and engineering principles applicable to the management and treatment of solid and hazardous wastes. 1.1 Discuss the reason for creating cake in the system. 1.2 Discuss the available technologies for dewatering sludge. 5. Evaluate operations and technologies related to industrial and hazardous wastes. 5.1 Discuss the sources of sludge and other solids from conventional wastewater treatment systems. 5.2 Discuss the physical and chemical characteristics of sludge and other solids produced during wastewater treatment operations. Reading Assignment Chapter 8: Solid Waste Treatment and Disposal Unit Lesson While Bahadori (2014) spends considerable time discussing solid waste treatment strategies (related to sludge and scum generated from the influent waste stream), it may be easy for us to forget exactly what it is that we are intending to do in this part of the process. Let’s look at this phase of the treatment process from a macro-scaled perspective first, and then dive into the micro-scaled perspectives of the physical and chemical activities related to this phase. First, we must remember that all we have done to this point in the entire treatment process is received the influent waste streams from industry, physically removed some (not all) of the oil and other easily-accessed contaminants, tied up some (not all) contaminants with chemical binding, digested and broken down other contaminants with biological organisms, and then removed as many solids as possible from the system that resulted from those activities (Texas Water Utilities Association [TWUA], 1991). As such, we are now left with a system that is still too heavily loaded with remaining solids that are presently in suspension. These are the solids that did not get physically removed during the physical treatment phase, precipitated out during the chemical treatment phase, digested during the biological treatment phase, or settled out during the secondary settling phase. Consequently, we must find a way to remove these suspended solids that represent a wide cross-section of oils, metals, salts, biological organisms, and general debris from the treatment system (TWUA, 1991; Haas & Vamos, 1995). One of the better demonstrated successful strategies at this point is to intentionally form more sludge (some of which was already removed during the earlier stages of treatment) by forcing these suspended solids to bind with something more, thereby increasing the particle size, specific gravity, and subsequent physical attainability of the solids in the remaining solution. Once this is achieved, the solid particles can then be filtered or pressed out of the suspension, dewatering the solids for ultimate solid waste disposal (TWUA 1991). Understanding this, we can now consider the micro-scaled perspective of this phase of treatment, focusing specifically on dewatering. It is now understandable that, given the earlier stages of treatment (chemical and biological), a larger proportion of dissolved solids (from solution) have been removed, relative to the smaller UNIT VI STUDY GUIDE Designing Solid Waste Management Systems for Industrial and Hazardous Waste
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MEE 5801, Industrial and Hazardous Waste Management 2 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title portion of suspended solids (from suspension) in the treatment process. Still, the total solids at this stage can range from 15 to 50% (Water Environment Federation [WEF], 2012). The traditionally accepted and demonstrated convention is to simply add in commercial polymers to increase the sludge generation within the suspension (sludge conditioning), then either filter or press the sludge to remove the water to create a cake of solids (WEF, 2012). Once the sludge cake is sufficiently dry, it is ready for final disposal characterization through more analytical testing to meet Resource Conservation & Recovery Act (RCRA) Hazardous Waste Characterization Standards, pursuant to 40CFR 261, and ultimate disposition (Blackman, 2001). Dewatering equipment options can include various drying beds, filter presses, belt presses, screw presses, rotary presses, and centrifuges (WEF, 2012). However, two of the most popular designs for creating cake in industrial processes seem to be the membrane filter sludge press (recessed plate pressure filter) and the three-belt sludge press. The advantages of one technology over the other simply depend upon the external business pressures of how dry the sludge needs to be for the least costly disposal (to reduce the chances of free liquid stabilization charges at a hazardous waste landfill), the time afforded to process the sludge into cake, and the total operational hours available to clear the sludge cake from the press. It has been observed that filter cake requiring greater than 35 percent solids seems to be more cost effective if processed through a filter press (WEF, 2012). As a design, the filter plates (anywhere from 12 to 80 plates) are lined up on a suspended frame and pressed together tightly under air pressure. The liquid is forced through the filter plate sequence with hydraulic pumps, and the filtrate (supernatant) is either sent for final treatment or returned to the holding tank for additional sludge conditioning and re-filtering (TWUA, 1991). With these principles in mind, closely read Bahadori’s (2014) information on solid waste treatment and disposal, and closely consider the concept of dewatering sludge from the process. For the last time, let’s return to our interactive model and design in the solid waste treatment (sludge forming and dewatering) phase of our proposed industrial and hazardous waste treatment system. In this unit, we will finish our interactive design model in anticipation of tackling the problem of subsequent solid waste disposal (Unit VII and Unit VIII) generated from the industrial and hazardous waste treatment facility. 1. Click here to access the interactive design model. 2. Closely review the influent laboratory report (lift station) against the effluent laboratory report (pop up report). Notice that you are now able to successfully complete the system design with the final effluent concentrations meeting the established local limits for the municipal WWTP. 3. Use this model in your design work for your course project (proposed industrial and hazardous waste treatment facility) in this unit for the last time in this course. Congratulations on successfully engineering a design for effectively treating the influent industrial and hazardous wastes from various sectors of industry! You just spent the past six units applying theory to a field problem, and solved it for the client. This is precisely what we do as scholar-practitioners of environmental engineering. We will select the solid waste final disposition and disposal strategies to be used in conjunction with this treatment design during our last unit (Unit VIII) together. References Bahadori, A. (2014). Waste management in the chemical and petroleum industries. West Sussex, United Kingdom: Wiley. Blackman, W. (2001). Basic hazardous waste management (3rd ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. Haas, C., & Vamos, R. (1995). Hazardous and industrial waste treatment . Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice- Hall.
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MEE 5801, Industrial and Hazardous Waste Management 1 Course Learning Outcomes for Unit VIII Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to: 7. Solve hazardous waste related problems through collaborative methods of problem solving. 7.1 Discuss the waste profiling process, using the laboratory report as a metric of the industrial and hazardous waste treatment system’s effectiveness. 7.2 Discuss the landfill coordination and acceptance of solid waste generated from the industrial and hazardous waste treatment process. Reading Assignment This unit contains no textbook reading assignment. Unit Lesson In our last unit, we studied the process of properly characterizing waste as being either related to Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous or non-hazardous. This involved contracting with a commercial testing laboratory and evaluating the solid waste for toxicity, reactivity, corrosivity, and ignitability. In order to help us tie together the entire solid waste characterization and disposal process, it may benefit us to walk through a specific example together during this lesson. This will consequently incorporate your knowledge built from Unit VII as well as expand your understanding of the entire industrial and solid waste management process. For our scenario together, let’s consider that your developed transfer storage disposal facility (TSDF) pretreatment process that you have designed since Unit I has now generated a filter cake solid and you are ready to dispose of the filter cake. Your client has informed you that they want to landfill any solid wastes generated from the facility as they have no current markets for land farming or recycling. Sampling and Testing Understanding the principles that you learned in Unit VII, including the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and the reactivity, corrosivity, and ignitability (RCI) testing, the first thing that you do is pick up the phone and call the environmental testing laboratory technical-sales person that made a visit to your office a few weeks ago. She left you her card and asked you to contact her if you ever had a need for testing. When she answers the phone, the two of you discuss your interest in sending the filter cake to a landfill. She asks you to please send her an email with the request, asking specifically for the tests for which you need your filter cake analyzed. You send her requests for the following tests: (a) complete TCLP (including pesticides and herbicides), and (b) RCI. She comes by the next day, samples the filter cake solids, and transports the samples back to the laboratory for login and analysis. About ten days later, you receive the lab report. These are your results: (a) all metals are “nd” (non-detect) for everything except chromium at 4.9 mg/L (ppm), (b) non-reactive, (c) non-corrosive with a pH of 8.4, (d) not ignitable with a flashpoint of > 160ºF, (e) benzene at 1.5 mg/L, (f) chlordane at 0.024 mg/L, and (g) toxaphene at 0.6 mg/L. Waste Profiling You find a copy of a chart from a vendor that you picked up from a trade show last spring and begin tabulating the 40CFR 261.24. You compare your lab report against the RCRA limits and find that you actually do have two parameters that demonstrate RCRA hazardous with the reported TCLP values: (a) benzene (RCRA limit UNIT VIII STUDY GUIDE Designing Integrated Industrial & Waste Management Systems
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MEE 5801, Industrial and Hazardous Waste Management 2 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title of 0.5 ppm), and (b) toxaphene (RCRA limit of 0.5 ppm). You take a sticky note and write the following information (Blackman, 2001): benzene (D018), and toxaphene (D015). You now realize that the filter cake is considered to be an RCRA Hazardous Waste (Blackman, 2001). This was not what you had hoped, but you know what to do. Waste Hauling and Landfilling You dig back into the top drawer of your desk and pull out another business card. This one is for a technical sales professional that works for a hazardous landfill. You call and discuss your waste profile with the landfill specialist, informing him of your two RCRA listed waste characteristics. He tells you that he has a landfill cell dedicated to just these characteristics and sends out a 25 yd 3 roll-off box in which to collect the filter cake from your filter press. The operations crew finishes filling and covering the roll-off box, and the landfill specialist arrives with the truck to haul the filter cake to the landfill. He informs you that the filter cake will be tested for free liquids (describing a “paint filter test”) at the scale house prior to entering the landfill. He then has you fill out the waste manifest for the load, indicating the volume of the roll-off box, the D-listed waste profile, and a copy of the laboratory report. The landfill specialist informs you that once the filter cake has been disposed of into the landfill, a copy of the fully-signed waste manifest will be returned to you in the mail. The truck takes the filter cake away, and you are finished with the project. The last thing that you need to do is scan a copy of the manifest for the accounting department (as back-up for the forthcoming invoice from the landfill) and put the hard copy of the waste manifest into your well-labeled filing cabinet in your office. The above scenario should really help you for the final section (Unit VIII) of your proposed industrial and hazardous waste treatment facility proposal. Let’s see how well all of this comes together with this collaborative approach to solving the difficult problem of industrial and hazardous waste treatment from the three identified sources described in Unit I. You can now be confident in your ability to understand how to effectively separate, treat, and dispose of a wide range of industrial liquid and solid wastes generated from a wide cross-section of industry! Reference Blackman, W. (2001). Basic hazardous waste management (3rd ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. Suggested Reading The suggested reading will give you additional resources related to the content for this unit. The article can be found using the Academic Search Complete database in the CSU library. Caccavale, S. (1999). The safety professional's guide to understanding the solid and hazardous waste regulations. Professional Safety , 44 (9), 18-22.
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