Benjamin Graham, the father of value investing, once said, "In the short run, the market is a voting machine, but in the long run, the market is a weighing machine." In this quote, Benjamin Graham was referring to the key difference between the "price" and the "value" of a security.
1. Stock prices and intrinsic values Benjamin Graham, the father of value investing, once said, “In the short run, the market is a voting machine, but in the long run, the market is a weighing machine.” In this quote, Benjamin Graham was referring to the key difference between the “price” and the “value” of a security. In November 2006, Citigroup's stock (NYSE: C) was trading at $49.59. Following the credit crisis of 2007—2008 and by the end of October 2009, Citigroup's stock price had plummeted to $4.27. Several banks went under, and others saw their stock prices lose more than 60% of their value. Based on your understanding of stock prices and intrinsic values, which of the following statements is true? 0 A stock’s intrinsic value is based on the fundamental cash ﬂows and the company's risk. 0 The intrinsic value of a stock is based only on the perceived risk in the company. You can estimate the value of a company's stock using models such as the corporate valuation model and the dividend discount model. Which of the following companies would you choose to evaluate if you were using the corporate valuation model to estimate the value of the company's stock? 0 A company that has a stable distribution policy. 0 A company that is not expected to distribute any earnings to its stockholders for the next few years. Which of the following describe the reason(s) why maximization of intrinsic stock value beneﬁts society? Check all that apply. C] Most investors appreciate the risk companies take to maximize their stocks. Cl Most people have an important stake in the stock market. C] People like to work for companies that minimize operating costs. C] Successful companies beneﬁt consumers.
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