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hi I do not know how to start with this homework it is about geography science

In this

exercise you:

1.   keep a daily record of weather for two weeks (details below), and

2.   compare the weather of the current month with observational averages from the past of the               same month.


So, to summarize, you will be collecting two types of data...

1.   your personal daily observations for a 2-week period and 

2.   collect official Sky Harbor data for the entire month of September. 

Your two weeks of observations at a fixed time each day. You are going to be a cooperative observer for a two-week period. That means that you will be taking weather observations at a time that is convenient for you, but you must take them at the same time and location each day. Also, your observation time must be during daylight hours. It could be, for example, 8 a.m., 4 p.m., or noon, but remember that you take your observations at that same time and place every day. Go outside and observe as many of the following weather elements as you can yourself and then use other resources, such as the Internet, to complete the observations

For each day during your two-week period, collection the following data at your observation time and location:


a.      air temperature - use a thermometer if you have one (and make sure that it is situated in the shade).

b.      dew point temperature - use the internet...unless you happen to own a sling psychrometer!

c.      wind direction (direction it is coming from) - look for a flag or other object to determine wind direction.

d.      wind speed - use the internet

e.      weather (drizzle, rain, snow, thunderstorm, dust storm, hail, fog, lightning, etc.) - do you see any event taking place at your time of observation? Note that the event must be at your observation time...prior activity would be 'past weather' and could be plotted on your station model if you like...but not in the location reserved for 'present weather'.

f.       cloud cover (number of 10ths of the sky covered with clouds) - look around the whole sky and estimate the coverage as best as you type does not matter for this one...just estimate overall coverage in clouds.

g.      general cloud type(s) (e.g., cumulus, stratus, cirrus, altostratus, altocumulus,                                      cirrocumulus, cirrostratus, cumulonimbus, etc.) Refer to textbook for cloud types - you can record more than one type (up to one per level). If there is more than one cloud a certain level, e.g., two low cloud types, use the predominant type when plotting on the station model. You can't plot two low cloud symbols on the station model. Same for middle or high clouds.

h.      atmospheric pressure - use the internet

           *i.       weather situation - watch the evening weather and note what weather feature is affecting AZ on that day, e.g., low pressure system (usually brings clouds and perhaps rain), high pressure (usually associated with clear skies and fair conditions), fronts, etc. This one is actually important to do during your observation period (if you start early) and for the entire month of September. Having this information can help you write up the paper after September is over and you are trying to figure out what to write! 

Official data for September: PHOENIX SKY HARBOR AIRPORT

Sky Harbor Data can be found:

1.   Internet (National Weather Service Climate Data site) -

            Select "Preliminary Monthly Climatology Data (CF6)", select location "Phoenix", Timeframe "archived data" and pick September, hit go and print the page that results.  at the end of the month or check it daily. For the entire month, wait until October 1 to download).

2.   KEC 94 (the NWS radio station - 162.550 MHz on a weather radio) - morning climatological data for day before is given usually between 6 am - 8 am. Recording is constantly repeating so if you miss it, you can catch it next time around. Use this if you want to record it daily by listening to this station. You must have a radio capable of receiving this frequency.


***The Analysis and Summary Paper***


After the month of September is over, make sure that you have your two weeks of personal observations completed and that you have also gone to the National Weather Service site to download the summary statistics for the month of September.


1)   Complete the calendar for the two-week period of your personal observations. You will be plotting complete station models for each day in the center of each square. Use the format you learned at the beginning of the semester and shown to the right. Not all information will appear on your station models such as pressure change (28 to the right of the station circle) and tendency over the last 3 hrs (unless you measured it).


2)   compare the daily data from Sky Harbor airport during the ENTIRE month of September 2019 to the long-term, 30year "normals" and "extreme values" for Sky Harbor. **Make sure that you are analyzing the entire month, not just the time period that may overlap your personal observations. Sky Harbor data sheet of "normals" and "extremes are near the end of this document. The "NORMALS" are 30-year averages of climatological variables including temperature and precipitation (which you will use). They are produced once every 10 years. The current normal contain data from the period 1981-2010. Other variables in the data set include daily and monthly Normals of snowfall, heating and cooling degree days, frost/freeze dates, and growing degree days. These data are calculated from observations at about 9800 stations operated by NOAA's National Weather Service. 

On the nightly weather report, the meteorologist might say that the high for the day was 115°F, 6°F above normal. That 'normal' is the value averaged over that 1981-2010 (30-year) period. 


also briefly discuss the observations that you took (and plotted on the calendar). Be sure to mention 

•      your time of observation

•      where your observations took place (I don't need your address, just cross-streets...general area)

•      your data sources using the appropriate referencing (e.g., data from the Internet, newspaper, etc.)

•      What did you learn from the entire exercise (collecting and analyzing both data sets)?



Using the Sky Harbor data, you MUST include ALL of the following items in the format shown in the examples below. These are worth quite a lot of points in the overall assignment:

•      the monthly mean (average) maximum temperature and how it compares to normal (quantitative as well as qualitative description). Example: "the mean maximum temperature for the month was

67.8°F, which was +2.1°F above the normal of 65.7°F",

•      the monthly mean minimum temperature and how it compares to normal (quantitative as well as qualitative description). Ex. "the mean minimum temperature for the month was 43.2°F, which was -3.3°F above the normal of 46.5°F",

•      the monthly mean temperature and how it compares to normal (quantitative as well as qualitative description),

•      the total precipitation for the month. How does this compare to normal? (quantitative as well as qualitative description). Be sure to mention what the normal amount is for the month. Example: "precipitation for the month was 8.54 inches which was 0.45" below the normal amount of 8.99 inches".

•      were any temperature or precipitation records tied and/or broken? If so, when and what value? Even if there were none, be sure to mention that fact. I will be looking for this information in your paper.


Note: In the paper write-up, temperatures should be expressed to the nearest tenth (one number after the decimal) and precipitation to the nearest hundredth (two numbers after the decimal). Remember that on a station model (on your calendar), temperatures are expressed as whole decimals or units. Pressures are in mb.


Highly recommended: you should try to use graphs, diagrams, or tables to display your data to better illustrate the comparisons that you are making (see tips below). On page 6 of this handout is an example of how you might set up an excel spreadsheet to analyze and graph the data for this assignment. If you don't know how to make graphs using Excel or any other program, you can draw them on paper, scan, and add to your document. Graphics do not count towards the length of the paper.


You should also try to include things like:

•      cooling degree days (CDD) and compare to daily and total monthly values. What does this mean in terms of the overall warmness or coolness of the month as compared to normal?

•      a comparison of the number of clear, partly cloudy, cloudy, thunderstorm, measurable rain days in relation to what is normal for the month

•      a discussion of the precipitation (and/or thunderstorm) events during the month, the causes, time of day they occurred, duration, severity, etc.            

•      compare the data from your observation location with the data from Sky Harbor. What factors can you think of that would account for the observed variation. If you chose to , please make sure that this analysis is secondary (i.e., in addition to) to the most important analysis that compares the Sky Harbor data for this September to the "normals".  Furthermore, you can only comparison if you took your observations at a time close to the max or min for the day at Sky Harbor. If not, do not will be comparing "apples to oranges".

•      anything else you think that would be appropriate, e.g., fluctuations in dewpoint, wind direction, speed, etc.


Warning: do not compare your personal observations (those taken at your home, work, etc) to the Sky Harbor Normals. Additionally (as mentioned earlier), do not compare your personal observations to the Sky Harbor high and low temperatures for the day unless your observation time is near the time of the daily high or low. If in doubt, don't do it. Questions...ask me.





You should make 4 graphs and they are as follows. Also follow the proper format for the particular data set...

Temperatures are ALWAYS plotted with line graphs

Precipitation are ALWAYS plotted with bar charts


1.   Make a graph with all four (4) MAX temperature data sets on the SAME graph (example on the next page). Use:

a.    Max T for Sept. 2019 - get from NWS site daily or for the entire month on Oct. 1

b.   Normal Max T - go to page 7 of this document

c.    Record Max T - go to page 7

d.   Record Low Max T - go to page 7. Low Max is a record showing the record lowest high temperature for the date, e.g., on September 1st of some year over the period of record, the lowest 'high' temperature was a 'cool' 89°F.


Example of Maximum Temperature Graph in proper line graph format:


2.   Make a graph with all four (4) MIN temperature data sets on the SAME graph. It will look similar to the example above. Use:

a.    Min T for Sept. 2019 - get from NWS site daily or for the entire month on Oct. 1

b.   Normal Min T - go to page 7 of this document

c.    Record Min T - go to page 7

d.   Record High Min T - go to page 7. High Min is a record showing the record highest minimum temperature for the date, e.g., on September 1st of some year, the overnight low was a very warm 90°F.


3.   Make a graph with both (2) MEAN temperature data sets on the SAME graph. Use:

a.    Mean (average) T for Sept. 2019 - get from the NWS data or calculate yourself

b.   Normal Mean - Avg. temp column of Phoenix September Normals table.


Make a graph of the September 2019 Precipitation vs. the record amount for the date. You can make this one a bar chart like I show below from 2014. Note, there was no precipitation in September 2014, so there are no blue bars in the graph

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