1) Refer to scans ' Building Up_Tearing Down Earth - 1, 2, 3 .' How do these two 'natural forces' in general express the geology of the planet's
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1) Refer to scans "Building Up_Tearing Down Earth - 1, 2, 3

."

How do these two 'natural forces' in general express the geology of the planet's landscape?


Building Up_Tearing Down Earth - page1.pngBuilding Up_Tearing Down Earth - page 2.pngBuilding Up_Tearing Down Earth - page 3 (last page).png


PLATE TECTONICS as earth's natural building force:________________

EROSION as earth's natural destroying force:________________________





 Refer to the scan Map_Canada_Geology_Eras for the following questions:

Map_Canada_Geology_Eras.png


2) a) Identify in general which provinces/territories of Canada are mostly (~50% or more) dominated by the following major eras? 

Precambrian:_______________

Paleozoic:_______________

Mesozoic:_______________

Cenozoic:_______________


b) From which major and minor era can we expect to see the rocks and fossils from...where we live (ie. the South Central Ontario region)?


c) Refer to the scan Map_Canada_Biology_Eras.

Map_Canada_Biology_Eras.png


Name two or three specific fossils we might expect to find:


Where we live (ie. the South Central Ontario region...look for Lake Ontario)?


On Vancouver Island, BC:__________


In most of New Brunswick and PEI:__________


The region of St. John's, specifically around the easternmost part of NFLD:__________



3) From the youtube video (click below): A Brief History of Geologic time... LINK: (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rWp5ZpJAIAE&ab_channel=PBSEons)


Answer the following questions:


What is Stratigraphy?

What is Strata?

How are fossils used as 'indexes or benchmarks' for geologic time?

What Era comprises the Hadean, Archean, and Proterozoic Eon?

What is the essential difference between these three Eons? 

Hadean:

Archean:

Proterozoic:

What are Trilobites?

What % of species became extinct during the 'Great Dying?

What is the 'KPG' extinction event?

When did 'The (last) Great Ice Age' begin ?

How are we (humanity) the "authors of the next chapter (era)?"What geologic event marks the 'Dawn of Man?



4) Review specific scan...'Geol Eras 2 of 2'.


Geol Eras page 1.pngGeol Eras page 2.png


answer the following chart in point form: see image (a) number 4.png

(a) number 4.png


(a)What major geologic event took place in each era? don't forget to see image (a) number 4.png


(b) What major geologic event(s) took place in each era? (for the Earth) don't forget to see image (b) number 4.png

(b) number 4.png

5) Summary and Perspective: Each geologic era then generally represents massive or catastrophic changes in two key things...earth's geology (rock)...and earth's biology (life). Illustrate each type of  'major change' to the following:


A change in Earth's Geology:_______

A change in Earth's Biology:_________


6) Complete/Calculate the following table/questions using data from Fig 2-4 (below) or Geol Eras 2 of 2: (don't forget to see Geol Eras 2 of 2.png)


ALSO, go to part of number 6.png for the number 6 or 6) question



Geol Eras 2 of 2.png



part of number 6.png

Image transcriptions

Building Earth Up-Plate Tectonics Earth's crust is divided into a number of rock slabs, called plates, that float on Earth's upper mantle, the layer of Earth between the crust and the core. Seven major plates, and about a dozen smaller ones, cover Earth's surface. For over 4 billion years they have been moving around on Earth's surface in a process known as plate tectonics. Interactions along plate boundaries result in earthquakes, volcanoes, and mountain building. Figure 1-8 shows the location of plate Figure 1-8 How do the boundaries and volcanoes. patterns of plate boundaries correspond with the patterns of volcanic activities? Plate Boundaries and Locations of Volcanoes North American Plate Eurasian Plate Eurasian Plate Juan de Fuca Plate Philippine Caribbean Plate Plate Arabian Indian Plate. African Plate Plate 306cos Plate Pacific Plate Australian Nazca South Plate Australian Plate .. American Plate Plate Scotia Plate Antarctic Plate Volcano .....".".."" Spreading ridge: cracks in the ocean floor Convergent plate: collision between plates CHAPTER 1 PHYSICAL PROCESSES AND NATURAL SYSTEMS . MHR 31

ArcGIS Activity: Heat from deep within Earth forms convection currents. Earthquakes, volcanoes and plates Convection currents are made up of slow movement of magma in Use ArcGIS Online to conduct the mantle that carries heat from the interior of Earth to the surface. short activity about plate These convection currents cause the plates to move. When plates tectonics. Share your results with a classmate. What did move apart, magma from within the mantle rises to fill the open space you find? and then cools, forming new crust. esri Canada When plates collide, one of three things can happen. If continental plates crash into each other, they can uplift to form complex mountain chains like the Canadian Rockies. When one plate slides beneath A Sense of Place another, volcanic activity is the result. And when plates grind past each other, earthquake activity is common. Why there? Why does Canada's West Spatial Significance: The Canadian Rocky Mountains were initially Coast experience the most tectonic activity? formed from 55 million to 80 million years ago. The rocks were deposited as sediments even earlier. How does the process of plate tectonics explain how these sediments ended up over 3000 metres above sea level? A Figure 1-9 Volcanoes and earthquakes are examples of physical processes that Tearing Earth Down-Glaciation build up the landscape. What other physical processes can While the processes of plate tectonics build up Earth's surface, other change the surface of Earth? forces, such as wind, running water, ice, and gravity, work to tear it down. Water wears away at rocks and minerals. This process is called weathering. When more snow falls in winter than melts in the summer, layers of ice and snow can build up over time to form glaciers. Once the layers of glacial ice become thick and heavy enough, gravity causes the ice to flow outward from its base. The rock beneath the moving ice breaks down (weathering) and the materials are carried away by the ice and melted water (erosion).

Glaciers can completely change the landscape. During the last ice Glacial Ice in North age, about 14 000 years ago, Canada was almost completely covered America in ice, as shown in Figure 1-10. As the glaciers moved, they eroded the rock, grinding down and carving the landscape. Figure 1-11 shows the effects of these continental glaciers on the landscape. The opposite is true for glaciers that form in a mountain (alpine glaciers), as shown Cordilleran ice in Figure 1-12-erosion tends to sharpen the features rather than sheet Laurentide ice sheet smoothing them. As the glaciers moved, massive loads of rock debris and sediments were picked up and combined with the ice. Once the ice began to melt and retreat, these materials were left behind, creating a variety of landforms. Spatial Significance: In what ways did the glaciers affect the area in which you live? A Figure 1-10 Glaciers covered Canada 14 000 years ago. How have glaciers retreating glacier modified the landscape since drumlin that time? field end moraine Figure 1-11 This diagram karnes esker shows what happens when a continental glacier retreats, leaving behind large loads of deposited materials. What recessional types of economic activities end moraine might be associated with ground outwash areas now covered in glacial moraine kettle plains deposits? bedrock lakes horn arete cirques main glacier medial moraine Figure 1-12 Glaciers in alpine areas leave behind distinctive formations. What types of recreational activities might take place in alpine areas once the glaciers have retreated? truncated spurs

Glacial effect on landforms 80 W existing glaciers areas of glacial erosion Cenozoic and deposition Quaternary (Pleistocene um, glacial drift. [All Canada was affected by generally unglaciated and Recent) Pleistocene glaciation). areas Tertiary andasitel asso areas once covered with sedimentary rocks by seas Mesozoic areas once covered Cretaceous Mainly sedimentary rocks (sandstone, shale, conglomeratel, oil and by lakes sand, bentonite. Jurassic sedimentary and volcanic rocks largillite, greywacke, sandstone, Triassic limentary and volcanic rocks bargiline, quartzite, limestone, andosite. kania breccia, tuffl, may include oil and natural gas. undivided Paleozoic cale 1: 90 000 000 Carboniferous Mainly sedimentary rocks (sandstone, Limestone, shale, conglomeratel. and Permian ome volcanic rocks; coal measures, oil and natural gas, gypsum. D Devonian Silurian by sedimentary rocks ( sandstone, shale, limestone, conglomerate, 601089 some volcanic rocks; gypsum, salt, oil and natural gas. 0 Ordovician pers limestone, Dolomite, shale, argelite, sandstone. artrite, gritt oil and natural gas. Cambrian entary rocks (dolomite, limestone, shale, chart, quartrite, dstone, conglomeratel. undivided Pre Cambrian Mainly sedimentary and volcanic rocks and derived metamorphic rocks Proterozoic ishale, argilite, slate, chart, limestone, dolomite, sandstone, quartrite, Mainly sedimentary and derived metamorphic rocks fargillito, slate, 5 Archean in, quartzite. greywacke, conglomerate, sedimentary gneiss and histh Associated with areas of mainly volcanic and derived asalt: rhyoliticrachyte, volcanic breccia and tur : greenstone schist, homblende greiss: iron anelss; iron formation Intrusive rocks Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic Mainly seid rocks Igranodiorite, quarts morronite, quartz Torite: granite, syenitel. Some areas of basic and ultrabasic rocks (gabbre, pyroxenite, serpentinel. Pre Cambrian - Proterozoic and Archean Mainly acid rocks Igranodi quartz dioriter granite rock. Some areas of basic and ultrabasic rocks (anorthesites gabbro, diabase sills and dybest. Scale 1: 24 000 0D0 Geological time scale (to nearest million years) over 4.4 billig resent 63 135 180 230 345 405 42 500 600 Quatermary Cretaceous ! Jurassic ! Triasal Carboniterous and Permian Devonian Ordovician Carnbrian and irnary

THE AGE OF MARINE INVERTEBRATES GEOLOGY CANADA-THEMATIC THE AGE OF FISHES CAMBILAN DEVON THE AGE OF ANDHI PRECAMBRIAN PER GAMERIAN TIVE DATES BACK AT LEAST . DO0 200 000 YEARS PALEOZOIC Geological time scale 8 en of earth's history surrounds The map Forces of life have changed bouncer thi Ers to re weed and camps burg orget with of the last a Do events 100 000 010 Years Goology is the science that deals with the physical The scale emptunites the most incent eras. nature and history of the earth. Geologists study The struc uro and development of the the earth's crust, individual rock types and lossis. Today, it is thought that the earth was croated butareon 4 000 600 000 and 5 000 080 000 years ago Most of the continental crusts were created from cooled magma at east 2 500 090 000 years ago. Erosion has wom down hose mainly igneous rocks but there has also been sam pitt as well diments produced by this erosion With more h d by pressure and heat into sedimentary rocks t ard pressure, some of these in turn ed (metamorphosed) into metamorphic rocks Many rocks contain the remains, or the impression the remains, of plants and animals, These fossils help set entists to estimate the ag of life - make the age of rocks. The simplest tours date back ov 600 000 000 years to the Precambrian Fra. Great changes took place in the Paloozaic Era. Over a period of nearly 100 000 000 years, land animals focusts appeared. ars, land animals, insects, land plants and MESOZOIC THE AGE OF REPTILES GLACKAN EOCENE CENOZOIC PALEOZOIC OLIGOGENE Temperature changes over time weather changes on a student However, Tuctulations in temperature can produc CENOZOIC MESOZDIC PRECAMBRIAN severe endronmental changes for life on earth MOCENE the a similar amount, many low lying on fooded as the polly ka capo meted. ARCHEAN Sedimentary rican Inand 500 10 in milans . 500 CAMTULAN Sedmer INTRUSIVE ROCKS CILLOZOIC, MESOIDIG, AND PALEOZOIC Mainly acidic PALECHOC JLATER MART HUMANITY CRETACEOUS TERTIARY SILURIAN _AND THASDE JURASSIC PLICGENE MICGENE DADOVICIAN DUOOCEME DOCENT CANBRIAN PERMIA 19 PRENTICE HALL CANADA QUATE ANGRY

We can 0:":th North America's Geologic History North America's amazing physical diversity is largely the result of its geo- logic development. The theory of plate tectonics helps to explain part of our geologic history, but other forces come into play. Earth's physical land- scape is also partly the result of conflict between forces that build the land higher and those that wear it down. Land that is violently pushed upward by great forces within Earth may form mountains. Mountains and other elevated areas, in turn, are slowly and continuously worn down by wind. rain, running water, and ice. This wearing down is called erosion. At different times and in different places, one force has been stronger than the other. When mountain-building forces are more active than ero- sional forces, the land rises. When erosional forces are more powerful, the land sinks. This conflict has taken place over hundreds of millions of years, and forms the ongoing story of Earth's geologic history. Geologic Time How can we imagine how old Earth is, when it is estimated that it formed about 4 600 000 000 years ago? Here is a way to help you understand the passing of geologlc time. Divide your age into a million years. This will tell you how many of your lifetimes equal one million years. For example, if

you are 15, you would have to live your life approximately 66 667 times TERN (1 000 000/15) before you would live a million years. How many times would the length of your life fit into Earth's lifespan of 4 600 000 000 years? To learn more To make geologic time easier to understand, geologists have divided about geologic Earth's history into four time periods called eras. An overview of these time, check the link at www.pearsoned.cal eras is shown in Fig. 11-9. Each era represents a time of major sediment makingconnections2. deposition and plate movement. While not all researchers agree with one another, the following account of the world's geologic history is widely deposition accepted. Complete the following exercise to help you discover what gradual laying down of events occurred during which eras. materials 1. Using the information from Fig.11-9, answer the questions below. a) How old is Earth? b) What percentage of Earth's age does each era represent? Fig. 1 1-9 Geologic c) What is the name of the era in which we live? history is broken down into 2. a) Draw a line 100 mm long on a piece of paper. Divide it into four major time periods eras based on the percentages calculated in Question 1b). called eras. The eras are b) Using the chart from Fig. 11-9, label the main geological separated by major periods of mountain building and, in events that occurred in each era along the line. some cases, mass extinctions of animals. Eras Time Period (millions of years ago) Major Geological Events Major Biological Events Began Ended Cenozoic 66 . ice sheets cover much of . human beings develop (recent life) North America . age of mammals continents take on their present . modern forms of life evolve shape formation of the Rocky Mountains completed Mesozoic 245 66 formation of Rocky Mountains begins . age of reptiles, such as (middle life) . Innuitian Mountains formed dinosaurs shallow seas in the interior of North . first flowering plants America at various times first birds and mammals Paleozoic 570 245 . periods when large parts of North . age of amphibians and fish (ancient life) America are covered by shallow seas first insects Appalachians formed . large swamps - coal formed from this vegetation first plants and animals appear on land Precambrian 4600 570 . Precambrian shields, such as the . first multi-celled organisms (earliest life) Canadian Shield, Brazilian Shield, . first single-celled organisms African Shield, and Australian Shield are formed

Eras Time Period (millions of years ago) Major Geological Events Major Biological Events Began Ended Cenozoic 66 . ice sheets cover much of . human beings develop (recent life) North America . age of mammals . continents take on their present . modern forms of life evolve shape . formation of the Rocky Mountains completed Mesozoic 245 66 . formation of Rocky Mountains begins . age of reptiles, such as (middle life) . Innuitian Mountains formed dinosaurs . shallow seas in the interior of North . first flowering plants America at various times . first birds and mammals Paleozoic 570 245 . periods when large parts of North . age of amphibians and fish (ancient life) America are covered by shallow seas . first insects . Appalachians formed . large swamps - coal formed from this vegetation . first plants and animals appear on land Precambrian 4600 570 . Precambrian shields, such as the . first multi-celled organisms (earliest life) Canadian Shield, Brazilian Shield, . first single-celled organisms African Shield, and Australian Shield are formed

ERA Precambrian Paleozoic Mesozoic Cenozoic "Era of Man' Absolute Age (in total years) Relative Age (as a % of total age of Earth) Comment/Reflect on how long it has taken nature to actually build up the earth and all its diversity, compared to how long it has taken man to begin to undue much of what natured has worked so hard to do. (your words) Date and time of the year Millions of years ago: key event December 31 0 11:59:59.996 p.m. You were born. December 31 0 11:59 p.m. 0.001 : Last ice age ends. December 31 @ 11:48 p.m. 0.1: Modern humans appear. December 31 0 7:40 pum. 2.6: First ion age begins December 31 0 5:20 p.m. 4: Oldest human-like ancestors appear December 26 85: Canorole Era begins December 22 115: First flowering plants appear. December 19 1 50: First birds appear. December 12 220: First mammals appear. December 12 245: Mesozoic Era begins. December 1 400 First Insects appear. 54: Paleozuc Era begins. November 11 550 First anime s with hard shells appear. March 20 3600: Didest organisms (a type of algao) appear. March 4 3800: Evidence for earliest organisms- geochemical evidence of life. Junuary 27 4210: Oldest rocks begin to form. January 1 4600: Earth formed: Precambrian Sypereon ("Before the Cambrian." It is divided into three eons: the Hadean (4500 to 3950]. Archean [4000 to 2500], and the Protero zoic [2500 to 541.0 = 1.0] A Figure 2-4 Evidence of the Precambrian Era exists in only nine places in the world. such as the Canadian Shield. Most of the world was formed and shaped in more recent times.

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