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Year MeanT DJF Max T DJF (Min T DJF ( El Nino CatLa Nina Ca SOI DJF Skateway Skateway CSkateway Season Length 1971 -11.8 -15.5 0 2 1.4333 18 57 39...

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Year MeanT DJF Max T DJF (Min T DJF ( El Nino CatLa Nina Ca SOI DJF Skateway Skateway CSkateway Season Length 1971 -11.2 -6.8 -15.5 0 2 1.4333 18 57 39 1972 -9.4 -4.5 -14.1 0 1 0.6333 -5 85 90 1973 -9.2 -4.7 -13.7 3 0 -1 -13 65 78 1974 -9.0 -4.6 -13.3 0 3 2.1 -2 63 65 1975 -6.5 -2.4 -10.5 0 1 0.1667 -4 58 62 1976 -10.5 -5.2 -15.8 0 3 1.7333 -11 56 67 1977 -11.3 -6.9 -15.7 1 0 0.1667 -12 59 71 1978 -10.6 -6.8 -14.5 1 0 -1.3667 -9 68 77 1979 -10.7 -6.6 -14.8 0 0 0.1667 -11 53 64 1980 -8.1 -3.9 -12.2 1 0 0 -10 52 62 1981 -10.0 -5.2 -14.7 0 0 0.0333 -10 51 61 1982 -9.9 -5.7 -14.2 0 0 0.6667 -13 53 66 1983 -6.3 -1.8 -10.7 4 0 -3.1 2 47 45 1984 -8.6 -4.5 -12.6 0 1 0.3667 -6 44 47 1985 -8.6 -4.6 -12.7 0 1 0.2667 4 48 44 1986 -9.5 -5.0 -13.8 0 0 0.0667 -4 52 50 1987 -7.9 -3.7 -12.0 2 0 -1.1 6 61 55 1988 -7.5 -3.0 -11.9 2 0 -0.3333 4 67 64 1989 -8.6 -3.5 -13.6 0 3 1.3 -8 72 81 1990 -9.4 -4.9 -13.9 0 0 -0.8 -7 53 62 1991 -7.4 -2.5 -12.2 0 0 0.2333 -4 61 66 1992 -9.7 -5.3 -14.0 2 0 -1.8667 -3 64 68 1993 -9.4 -5.0 -13.7 0 0 -0.7333 -2 59 52 1994 -12.1 -7.5 -16.6 0 0 0.1333 -1 68 64 1995 -7.3 -3.2 -11.3 1 0 -0.5667 1 65 50 1996 -10.0 -5.6 -14.4 0 1 0.2667 1 53 53 1997 -7.5 -3.3 -11.7 0 0 1.0333 12 57 46 1998 -6.0 -2.1 -9.9 4 0 -1.9 -10 61 46 1999 -6.4 -1.8 -10.9 0 2 1.4 2 75 57 2000 -7.2 -2.5 -11.9 0 2 1.2667 0 53 46 2001 -9.5 -4.8 -14.1 0 1 1.1667 -3 68 69 2002 -4.1 0.4 -8.5 0 0 0.2333 33 67 35 2003 -10.4 -5.8 -14.9 2 0 -0.6667 3 75 72 2004 -9.6 -5.4 -13.8 0 0 0.3333 14 59 46 2005 -9.0 -4.2 -13.9 1 0 -1.2 -3 75 78 2006 -6.7 -2.8 -10.5 0 0 0.6 7 69 63 2007 -6.9 -2.6 -11.1 1 0 -0.4 26 71 45 2008 -7.5 -3.3 -11.6 0 2 2.0333 25 65 41 2009 -9.6 -4.7 -14.4 0 0 1.4667 1 64 64 2010 -6.5 -3.1 -9.8 2 0 -1.1 14 57 44 2011 -8.1 -4.5 -11.8 0 2 2.6333 8 64 56 2012 -6.1 -1.1 -12.6 0 1 1.3667 14 52 40 2013 -7.2 -2.7 -12.9 0 0 -0.3 18 59 42 2014 -10.5 -5.9 -16.7 0 0 0.5333 0 70 71 2015 -11.4 -5.9 -18.3 0 0 -0.4 10 68 59 2016 4 0 -1.4 23 56 34
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GEOG 2013: Weather and Water LAB 6: Teleconnections Paper submissions due: beginning of your lab, week of March 14. For submissions policy please see the course syllabus. Total marks for this assignment: 27 , value: 5% Lab References: Section 15.7 Ross, 2013 Atmosphere-ocean interactions can impact large-scale atmospheric circulation in one part of the world and affect the weather of another part of the world even 1000s of kilometers apart. These are teleconnections. The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is one such teleconnection. El Niño and La Niña events are associated with changes in the ocean temperatures in the Pacific Ocean near the equator. The normal situation is a cold current off the coast of Peru, higher atmospheric pressure in the eastern Pacific and lower atmospheric pressure in the western Pacific driving strong trade winds. During an El Niño event, the current waters near Peru are warmer, there is less high pressure, the trade winds are weaker, and a large area of the eastern Pacific warms. During La Niña, the opposite occurs and the eastern Pacific cools. The Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) is a measure of the large-scale changes in the difference in surface pressure between the western and eastern tropical Pacific. ENSO and winters in Ottawa The 2015-16 Rideau Canal Skateway season was the shortest on record. This winter also happened to be during a strong El Niño event. Use the posted data for the past ~ 40 years to investigate any potential relationships between ENSO and Ottawa winter conditions and the Skateway season. Laboratory Assignment Questions: Note: All questions must be answered with complete sentences. All questions requiring calculations must include sample calculations, which will include the original formula used and units included throughout. Ensure there is a space between the number and the unit and between parts of units. For example, m s -1 . Always check that the units work out. The Lab Appendices posted on CULearn include instructions on the use of significant figures. We are concerned primarily that a reasonable number of digits are used appropriate for the resolution of the measurement. Also see the Lab Appendices for the required presentation format for tables and figures in this course. Make sure to cite your sources of information. We suggest including a statement up front such as “The following statements refer to information found in Ross (2013) unless otherwise stated.” Be sure to include references at the end of your submission. 1
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1. Why do El Niño and La Niña events impact the path of the wintertime jet streams over North America? Include in your answer a description of how the jet stream paths differ and the resulting general differences in weather with respect to central Canada and into Ontario (when appropriate). To help you with this answer, refer to Figure 1 and the following websites: http://www.srh.noaa.gov/jetstream/tropics/enso_impacts.htm http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/analysis_monitoring/ensocycle/nawinter.shtml . [5 marks] Figure 1. El Nino situaTon (a) and La Nina situaTon (b) from Ross (2013) 2. In your dataset, La Niña years have been numbered 0 (normal), 1 (weak La Nina), 2 (moderate La Niña), and 3 (strong La Niña). Similarly, El Niño years have been numbered 0 through 4 with 4 as very strong El Niño. a) Plot La Niña year categories vs. SOI averaged for December through February (DJF). Label as Figure 1 with a descriptive caption. [2 marks] b) Plot El Niño year categories vs. SOI averaged for DJF. Label as Figure 2 with a descriptive caption. [2 marks] c) How does SOI relate to ENSO events? [2 marks] 2
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GEOG 2013: Weather and Water
LAB 6: Teleconnections
Paper submissions due: beginning of your lab, week of March 14. For submissions policy
please see the course syllabus.
Total marks for this...

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