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Based on radiometric dating techniques, what is the approximate age of the earth: 4,590 years old 4.59 million years old 459 billion years old 459...

Based on radiometric dating techniques, what is the approximate age of the earth:

4,590 years old

4.59 million years old

459 billion years old

459 million years old

4.59 billion years old


 

Flag this Question Question 2 1 pts

East Africa and the Red Sea region are a:

ocean-ocean convergent boundary

continental-continental divergent boundary

hot spot

continental-continental convergent boundary

ocean-continental convergent boundary


 

Flag this Question Question 3 1 pts

Ship Rock in New Mexico and Devil's Tower in Wyoming are both examples of:

batholiths

cinder cone volcanoes

stratocone volcanoes

shield volcanoes

volcanic necks


 

Flag this Question Question 4 1 pts

An thin, tabular igneous intrusion that is parallel to the surrounding host rocks is a:

dike

batholith

caldera

pluton

sill


 

Flag this Question Question 5 1 pts

Approximately how many years ago did the Cenozoic begin

65,000,000 years ago

4,500,000,000 years ago

245,000,000 years ago

545,000,000 years ago

2,000 years ago


 

Flag this Question Question 6 1 pts

The principle of cross-cutting relationships states that:

fossils in sedimentary rocks help indicate the time when the sediments were deposited

faults and intrusions are younger than the rocks they offset or intrude

in a sequence of sedimentary rocks, the oldest rocks are at the bottom of the sequence

sediments are deposited in a flat-lying manner

minerals, such as staurolite, sometimes grow in a cross-cutting manner


 

Flag this Question Question 7 1 pts

Anticlines:

are upwarped folds.

form in rocks that are resistant to folding.

are downwarped folds.

are a type of dip-slip fault


 

Flag this Question Question 8 1 pts

Which of the following sedimentary rocks has the smallest clasts?

sandstone

breccia

siltstone

shale

conglomerate


 

Flag this Question Question 9 1 pts

Which of the following is not a common volcanic gas?

water vapor (H2O)

carbon dioxide (CO2)

sulfur dioxide (SO2)

oxygen (O2)

all of the above are common volcanic gases


 

Flag this Question Question 10 1 pts

Which of the following does not typically characterize subduction zones?

mountain building

deep-focus earthquakes

explosive volcanism

well-developed continental shelves

ocean trenches


 

Flag this Question Question 11 1 pts

Which of the following isotopes is commonly used to date igneous and metamorphic rocks that are older than one billion years?

Uranium-238

Iridium-115

Carbon-14

all of the above


 

Flag this Question Question 12 1 pts

Which rock forms shield volcanoes?

rhyolite

basalt

diorite

granite

andesite


 

Flag this Question Question 13 1 pts

Which type of volcanic landform is composed primarily of scoria?

caldera

volcanic dome

shield volcano

cinder cone volcano

stratocone volcano


 

Flag this Question Question 14 1 pts

Which of the following is least associated with high-pressure metamorphism?

foliated rocks

deep burial of sediments

metamorphic aureoles, or baked zones

continental collision

subduction zones


 

Flag this Question Question 15 1 pts

Which type of tectonic boundary forms the volcanoes that make up the Ring of Fire?

continental-continental divergent boundary

subduction zone

ocean-ocean divergent boundary

transform boundary

continental-continental convergent boundary


 

Flag this Question Question 16 1 pts

Ocean crust is older as you move away from the mid-ocean ridge.

False

True


 

Flag this Question Question 17 1 pts

Which type of tectonic boundary formed the Hawaiian Islands?

ocean-ocean convergent boundary

continental-continental divergent boundary

hot spot

ocean-ocean divergent boundary

ocean-continental convergent boundary


 

Flag this Question Question 18 1 pts

Atoms with a variable number of neutrons are referred to as:

none of the above

ions

electrons

isotopes

protons


 

Flag this Question Question 19 1 pts

Which of the following are associated with regional metamorphism?

none of the above is associated with regional metamorphism

active mountain building

convergent plate boundaries

foliated metamorphic rocks

all of the above are associated with regional metamorphism


 

Flag this Question Question 20 1 pts

Which layer of the earth contains the highest amount of iron and nickel?

the core

the asthenosphere

continental crust

the mantle

ocean crust


 

Flag this Question Question 21 1 pts

Which seafloor feature is the shallowest?

the continental slope

the abyssal plain

the continental shelf

ocean trenches

the continental rise


 

Flag this Question Question 22 1 pts

Which of the following sedimentary rocks forms from the lithification of undecayed plant material?

chert

rock gypsum

coal

halite

limestone


 

Flag this Question Question 23 1 pts

Which isotope is commonly used to date sedimentary rocks that are less than 50,000 years old?

all of the above

Potassium-40

Iridium-115

Uranium-238

Carbon-14


 

Flag this Question Question 24 1 pts

Which of the following minerals typically crystallizes at the lowest temperature?

pyroxene

quartz

Ca-plagioclase

olivine


 

Flag this Question Question 25 1 pts

Which of the following sedimentary rocks forms from the accumulation of CaCO3 shells?

halite

gypsum

chert

limestone

coal


 

Flag this Question Question 26 1 pts

Which of the following lasted approximately 4 billion years?

Mesozoic era

Cenozoic era

Paleozoic era

The Precambrian


 

Flag this Question Question 27 1 pts

Carbon-14 (C-14) has a longer half-life than Uranium-238 (U-238).

True

False


 

Flag this Question Question 28 1 pts

Which volcanic rock crystallizes from lowest viscosity magma?

rhyolite

andesite

basalt

gabbro

obsidian


 

Flag this Question Question 29 1 pts

What is the average depth of the ocean at the abyssal plain?

1 km

70 km

5 km

10 km

30 km


 

Flag this Question Question 30 1 pts

Which type of volcanic landform is composed of layer after layer of basalt flows?

shield volcano

cinder cone volcano

composite volcanoes

volcanic neck

calderas


 

Flag this Question Question 31 1 pts

In a syncline, all rock layers:

have vertical dips.

dip toward the fold axis.

dip away from the fold axis.

have horizontal dips.


 

Flag this Question Question 32 1 pts

Which of the following volcanoes is located on the Big Island of Hawaii:

Mt. Pinatubo

Mt. Etna

Kilauea

Mt. Shasta


 

Flag this Question Question 33 1 pts

Which of the following minerals has a sheet structure:

any mica

orthoclase

pyroxene

quartz

hornblende


 

Flag this Question Question 34 1 pts

Which plutonic rock crystallizes from lowest viscosity magma?

basalt

granite

gabbro

diorite


 

Flag this Question Question 35 1 pts

Which of the following rocks is not foliated?

gneiss

slate

schist

phyllite

quartzite


 

Flag this Question Question 36 1 pts

Which of the following would result in magma with a high viscosity?

high percentage of SiO2 in the magma and a low magma temperature

low percentage of SiO2 in the magma and a high magma temperature

high percentage of SiO2 in the magma and a high magma temperature

low percentage of SiO2 in the magma and a low magma temperature


 

Flag this Question Question 37 1 pts

Approximately how fast do lithospheric plates move?

5000 cm/yr

5 cm/yr

50 cm/yr

500 cm/yr


 

Flag this Question Question 38 1 pts

Which of the following statements about continental crust is false?

continental crust is thinner than continental lithosphere

P-waves travel slower through continental crust than through oceanic crust

continental crust has an average density of 2.7 g/cm3

continental crust thicker than oceanic crust

continental crust is denser than oceanic crust


 

Flag this Question Question 39 1 pts

Which of the following formed as a result of continental convergence?

the San Andreas fault

Iceland

The Himalayan Mountain range

Mt. St. Helens

the mid-ocean ridge


 

Flag this Question Question 40 1 pts

Which intrusive rock contains more SiO2 than diorite?

rhyolite

basalt

gabbro

andesite

granite


 

Flag this Question Question 41 1 pts

The density range of the earth is approximately:

2.7 - 13 g/cm3

30 - 2900 g/cm3

8 - 20 g/cm3

20 - 32 g/cm3

30 - 125 g/cm3


 

Flag this Question Question 42 1 pts

If the half-life of a radioactive isotope is 4 million years, and 1/8 of the original radioactive isotope is remaining in a mineral, what is the age of the mineral?

0.5 million years old

12 million years old

2 million years old

8 million years old

4 million years old


 

Flag this Question Question 43 1 pts

Which of the following volcanoes is the most explosive based on its eruptive history?

Kilauea

Mt. Rainier

Yellowstone caldera

Mt. Etna

Mt. St. Helens


 

Flag this Question Question 44 1 pts

Which of the following is least associated with explosive volcanic eruptions

magma with a high percentage of SiO2

magma with a temperature of 1200° C

Yellowstone caldera

magma with a high gas content

volcanoes which form at subduction zones


 

Flag this Question Question 45 1 pts

Island arcs:

all of the above

are eventually accreted at ocean trenches or erode away

form at ocean-ocean divergent boundaries

are composed of shield volcanoes


 

Flag this Question Question 46 1 pts

Which rock most often forms composite, or stratocone, volcanoes?

diorite

granite

basalt

andesite

rhyolite


 

Flag this Question Question 47 1 pts

Which of the following is an evaporite deposit composed of NaCl?

gypsum

rock salt

coal

limestone

chert


 

Flag this Question Question 48 1 pts

Which type of metamorphism occurs along the margins of magma intrusions?

all of the above

contact metamorphism

shock metamorphism

regional metamorphism


 

Flag this Question Question 49 1 pts

The plate tectonic boundary of the state of Washington is a:

continental-continental convergent boundary

continental-continental divergent boundary

ocean-continental convergent boundary

ocean-ocean divergent boundary

transform boundary


 

Flag this Question Question 50 1 pts

Carbon-14 is used to radiometrically date the age of the earth.

False

True


 

Flag this Question Question 51 1 pts

Which type of sedimentary structure forms from the repeated deposition of turbidity currents?

graded beds

cross beds

ripple marks

mudcracks


 

Flag this Question Question 52 1 pts

In what country is Mt. Etna located?

Philippines

The United States

Italy

Mexico


 

Flag this Question Question 53 1 pts

Which of the following encompasses the shortest amount of time?

Cenozoic era

Paleozoic era

Mesozoic era

Precambrian

all of the above encompass the same amount of time


 

Flag this Question Question 54 1 pts

Name the extrusive rock that is composed of quartz, plagioclase, and orthoclase.

rhyolite

pumice

basalt

andesite

scoria


 

Flag this Question Question 55 1 pts

Which type of plate tectonic boundary is Iceland part of?

transform boundary

ocean-ocean convergent boundary

ocean-ocean divergent boundary

subduction zone

continental-continental divergent boundary


 

Flag this Question Question 56 1 pts

Which of the following is not explained by plate tectonic theory?

the presence of the earth's magnetic field

location of earthquakes around the Pacific Rim

paleomagnetic "stripes" on the seafloor

the apparent "fit" of the African and South American continents

the formation of the Himalayan mountains


 

Flag this Question Question 57 1 pts

Which rock type most commonly forms batholiths?

andesite

diorite

gabbro

granite

basalt


 

Flag this Question Question 58 1 pts

Three minerals that would typically be found in a rock from the Sierra Nevada Batholith would be:

olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase

quartz, potassium feldspar, plagioclase

olivine, potassium feldspar, plagioclase

quartz, olivine, plagioclase


 

Flag this Question Question 59 1 pts

If a dike cross-cuts, or intrudes, a sedimentary rock formation, which is older?

the dike

the sedimentary rocks

impossible to determine


 

Flag this Question Question 60 1 pts

Which type of stress is associated with transform boundaries:

shear

tension

compression


 

Flag this Question Question 61 1 pts

Continental crust contains more ____________ than oceanic crust.

silicon and aluminum

silicon and iron

iron and magnesium

iron and aluminum


 

Flag this Question Question 62 1 pts

Which of the following statements is true?

paleomagnetic "stripes" are perpendicular to the mid-ocean ridge, transform faults are perpendicular to the mid-ocean ridge

paleomagnetic "stripes" are parallel to the mid-ocean ridge, transform faults are parallel to the mid-ocean ridge

paleomagnetic "stripes" are perpendicular to the mid-ocean ridge, transform faults are parallel to the mid-ocean ridge

paleomagnetic "stripes" are parallel to the mid-ocean ridge, transform faults are perpendicular to the mid-ocean ridge


 

Flag this Question Question 63 1 pts

Which plate tectonic boundaries most often form granitic batholiths:

ocean-continental subduction zones

oceanic hot spots

transform boundaries

ocean-ocean divergent boundaries

continental rifts


 

Flag this Question Question 64 1 pts

Which of the following characterizes a passive continental margin?

the East Coast of the United States

explosive volcanism

ocean trenches

all of the above

deep-focus earthquakes


 

Flag this Question Question 65 1 pts

If 1/4 of the original radioactive isotope is remaining in a mineral sample and 3/4 has converted to something else, how many half-lives have passed?

more than 4

2

4

less than 1

3


 

Flag this Question Question 66 1 pts

Which of the following metamorphic rocks has the finest texture (or smallest mineral grains)?

slate

gneiss

phyllite

schist


 

Flag this Question Question 67 1 pts

Which of the following lasted approximately 4 billion years:

Precambrian

Mesozoic era

Cenozoic era

Paleozoic era


 

Flag this Question Question 68 1 pts

Which of the following is not associated with divergent plate boundaries?

volcanism

continental rifting

mid-ocean ridges

all of the above are associated with divergent plate boundaries

Hawaii


 

Flag this Question Question 69 1 pts

Which type of metamorphism is caused by meteorite impacts:

none of the above

regional metamorphism

contact metamorphism

shock metamorphism


 

Flag this Question Question 70 1 pts

Approximately how thick is the core of the earth:

150 km

2,900 km

700 km

6,400 km

3,500 km


 

Flag this Question Question 71 1 pts

Which is currently part of a subduction zone?

The Himalayan Mountain range

the Mid-Atlantic ridge

Mt. St. Helens

the Hawaiian Islands

the San Andreas fault


 

Flag this Question Question 72 1 pts

Approximately how many years ago did the dinosaurs go extinct?

4 billion years ago

245 million years ago

65 million years ago

10,000 years ago

2 million years ago


 

Flag this Question Question 73 1 pts

Which seafloor feature is the deepest?

the abyssal plain

the continental shelf

the continental rise

ocean trenches

the continental slope


 

Flag this Question Question 74 1 pts

Which of the following is a silicate mineral:

obsidian

all of the above

basalt

calcite

quartz


 

Flag this Question Question 75 1 pts

Approximately how thick is the earth's mantle (both upper and lower):

70 km

150 km

700 km

2,900 km

6,400 km


 

Flag this Question Question 76 1 pts

A fault with a low-angle dip (less than 30°) in which the hanging wall moves up is called a:

reverse fault

normal fault

thrust fault

right-lateral strike-slip fault

left-lateral strike-slip fault


 

Flag this Question Question 77 1 pts

Which plutonic rock crystallizes at approximately 750° C?

basalt

rhyolite

granite

gabbro

diorite


 

Flag this Question Question 78 1 pts

In which type of fault does the hanging wall move down

left-lateral strike-slip faults

reverse faults

normal faults

thrust faults

right-lateral strike-slip faults


 

Flag this Question Question 79 1 pts

During which part of the geologic time scale were sedimentary rocks deposited which contain virtually no fossils?

Mesozoic era

Precambrian

Cenozoic era

Paleozoic era


 

Flag this Question Question 80 1 pts

During which part of the geologic time scale did the trilobites first appear?

Cenozoic era

Paleozoic era

Precambrian

Mesozoic era


 

Flag this Question Question 81 1 pts

What is the maximum depth of an earthquake at a subduction zone?

1 km

20 km

3500 km

670 km

250 km


 

Flag this Question Question 82 1 pts

Which extrusive rock contains the same amount of SiO2 as diorite?

gabbro

granite

rhyolite

andesite

basalt


 

Flag this Question Question 83 1 pts

Which of the following are associated with folded sedimentary rocks:

compressional stress and brittle strain

tensional stress and plastic strain

tensional stress and brittle strain

compressional stress and plastic strain


 

Flag this Question Question 84 1 pts

Which of the following rocks is least affected by acid rain?

limestone

sandstone with calcite cement

quartzite

coquina

marble


 

Flag this Question Question 85 1 pts

A coarse-grained sedimentary rock with angular, gravel-sized particles is a:

sandstone

coquina

conglomerate

shale

breccia


 

Flag this Question Question 86 1 pts

Which of the following statements about coral reefs is TRUE:

coral reefs form only in deep-water environments

none of the above statements about reefs coral are TRUE

coral reefs are built of organisms composed of SiO2

coral reefs form only in cold water

all of the above statements about coral reefs are TRUE


 

Flag this Question Question 87 1 pts

Which of the following is not associated with meteorite impacts?

formation of schist

high concentrations of iridium in resulting deposits

formation of shocked quartz

formation of tektites

all of the above are associated with meteorite impacts


 

Flag this Question Question 88 1 pts

Which type of tectonic boundary is the San Andreas Fault

ocean-ocean divergent boundary

subduction zone

transform boundary

continental-continental divergent boundary

continental-continental convergent boundary


 

Flag this Question Question 89 1 pts

Which of the following is least associated with compression:

thrust faults

convergent plate boundaries

normal faults

formation of synclines

formation of anticlines


 


Flag this Question Question 90 1 pts

Strike-slip faults can also be called:

anticlines

transform faults

reverse faults

synclines

normal faults

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