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# You put a 200mL beaker on a quad beam balance.  The balance reads 62 grams.  What is this reading?

Now I fill up the same beaker with 100 mL of water.  I put it back on the balance and it reads 163 grams.  What is the value of just the water in the beaker?

Determine the density of the water in your beaker.

What was your percent error given the true density of water is 1 g/cm3?

Calculate your percent error for the granite sample (accepted value 2.7 g/mL)?

You gather data on this basalt sample:

Mass= 32 g

Volume= 11 mL

What's the rock's density?

Percent error for the basalt (accepted value 3.0 g/mL)?

Given the densities of the two samples you have just determined, which rock will sit "higher" on Earth's surface?

Which rock, granite or basalt, most likely comprises continental crust based on your results?

Which rock, granite or basalt, most likely comprises oceanic crust based on your results?

(1) How old is the Earth in billions of years? Put this answer in scientific notation.

(2) Which column heading is the smallest division of time as listed here?

(3) Which column heading is the largest division of time?

(4) How many years span the Paleozoic era?

(5) Which eon spans the longest amount of time?

(6) Humans (bipedal hominids) come onto the scene ~1.5 mya coinciding with the dawn of the Quaternary period.  What percentage of total time as compared to Earth history have humans been here?

(7) How many millions of years have YOU been here? Put this answer in scientific notation.

B.  Earth is "Just" a Planet

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory actively monitors any asteroids that may pose a threat to Earth.  Very often, asteroids come close to Earth, but unless you are searching these websites it is likely you would never even hear about them.  Asteroid distance from Earth is compared to the distance from the moon to Earth.  Any rocky body closer than the moon is a true close call.  (km to mi= multiply by .62; mi to km= multiply by 1.6)

(1) The moon, on average, is approximately 385,000 km away.  Convert this number to miles=______________________

(2) Asteroid speed, on average, is approximately 25 km/sec.  Convert this to mi/hr=______________________________

(3) Calculate how much time Earth would have to prepare, if an asteroid were 400,000 miles away was on a collision course with our planet=

_______________________________

C.  Internal and External Processes Drive Geology

Rocks exposed at the surface are a direct reflection of what is taking place inside and outside the Earth.

(1) Name an internal process that is responsible for the rocks we observe at the surface.

(2) Name an external process that is responsible for the rocks we observe at the surface.

D.  Earth Materials

Fill in the blanks with the proper vocabulary terminology.

(1) An amorphous solid that cools too fast to have a crystal lattice is also known as a ___________________.

(2) These are the building blocks of rocks. ________________________________

(3) _______________________________ come from pre- existing sediments that compact and cement together over time.

(4) _______________________________ is molten rock that is at the surface.

(5) Fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas, and coal are categorized as _________________________________ because they have a C-H bond and come from once living things.

(6) __________________________________ are materials that change over long periods of time with the emplacement of heat/pressure.  These are "born" via continental collision events.

(7) Once _______________________________ hit the surface, they vaporize out of magma.  These include compounds such as CO2, SO2, and H2O.

(8) ________________________________ is molten rock underground.

(9) ________________________________ come from the hardening and solidification of molten material.

Lava     Organic Compounds Glass

Igneous rocks   Metamorphic Rocks     Magma

Volatiles         Minerals           Sedimentary Rocks

E.  Earth is a Unique, Evolving System

Using the image here, and your prior knowledge of Earth Science, answer the questions below.

The Atlantic Ocean is ~200 million years old.  It opened up during the Triassic Period, as pictured above.  Average width of the Atlantic is ~8000 km across.  How fast has the Atlantic Ocean been opening up on average since then? (Hint: rates of motion are always distance/time.)

_____________________________________________ km/million yrs

_____________________________________________ km/yr

_____________________________________________ cm/yr

(2) The San Andreas in CA, as pictured above, is one of the world's most notorious fault systems.  It separates the North American Plate from the Pacific Plate.  Look at the motion between the two plates in the image.  The San Andreas is currently moving at ~8cm/yr.  Calculate how many years it will take before San Francisco and Los Angeles are neighbors.

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