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Question

Elements with ________ half-life can be used to date really old rocks (i.e. a rock that is ~1 billion years old).

    any

    a short

    a long

    1. After 1 half-life, 50% of the parent atoms remain. After 2 half-lives, ____ of the parent atoms remain.

    75%

    25%

    0%

    50%


     

    1. Radiometric dating is based on the fact that in radioactive decay, ________ elements decay to form ________ elements at a fixed rate regardless of conditions.

    original, new

    daughter, parent

    parent, daughter

    first, second


     

    4. The radiometric "clock" begins when a mineral...

    crystallizes/forms

    gets deposited

    is buried

    reaches the Earth's surface


    5. Based on the Law of Original Horizontality, an event that tilts a set of layers must have occurred ________ those layers were deposited.

    while

    after

    before


    1. Based on the Law of Superposition, in a sequence of undisturbed layers the oldest beds will be at the ________ and the youngest beds will be at the ________.

    top, bottom

    bottom, top


     

    7.Inclusions must be ________ the rock or layer in which they are included based on the Law of Inclusions.

    the same age as

    older than

    younger than


    8.A fault or igneous intrusion must be ________ the layers it offsets/cuts through based on cross-cutting relationships.

    younger than

    older than

    the same age as


    10.Match the statements about Cross Section 1 to the principle used to determine the order of events.Group of answer choices

    graph1.jpg

    Formation (Fm) E is older than Fm X

    cross-cutting relationship, lateral continuity, superposition, none; this statement is incorrect, or inclusions.

    Fault K is younger than Fm D but older than Fm J

    cross-cutting relationship, lateral continuity, superposition, none; this statement is incorrect, or inclusions.

    Fm J is older than Fm S

    cross-cutting relationship, lateral continuity, superposition, none; this statement is incorrect, or inclusions.

    Fm P is older than Fm B but younger than Fm F

    cross-cutting relationship, lateral continuity, superposition, none; this statement is incorrect, or inclusions.

    Intrusion M is older than Fm A but younger than Fm R

    cross-cutting relationship, lateral continuity, superposition, none; this statement is incorrect, or inclusions.


    11.

    graph2.jpg

    List the geologic features in Cross Section 2 in order from oldest to youngest. 


    1 (oldest): B, J, L, H, A, D, Intrusion E, Fault C, F, G, Dike K, or I

    2: B, J, L, H, A, D, Intrusion E, Fault C, F, G, Dike K, or I

    3: B, J, L, H, A, D, Intrusion E, Fault C, F, G, Dike K, or I

    4: B, J, L, H, A, D, Intrusion E, Fault C, F, G, Dike K, or I

    5: B, J, L, H, A, D, Intrusion E, Fault C, F, G, Dike K, or I

    6: B, J, L, H, A, D, Intrusion E, Fault C, F, G, Dike K, or I

    7: B, J, L, H, A, D, Intrusion E, Fault C, F, G, Dike K, or I

    8: B, J, L, H, A, D, Intrusion E, Fault C, F, G, Dike K, or I

    9: B, J, L, H, A, D, Intrusion E, Fault C, F, G, Dike K, or I

    10: B, J, L, H, A, D, Intrusion E, Fault C, F, G, Dike K, or I

    11: B, J, L, H, A, D, Intrusion E, Fault C, F, G, Dike K, or I

    12 (youngest): B, J, L, H, A, D, Intrusion E, Fault C, F, G, Dike K, or I



    Question 12.

    Absolute dating charts.jpg


    In Cross Section 2, Dike K contains zircon with a uranium-238:lead-206 ratio of 22.81, and Intrusion E contains hornblende with 70.7% of its parent potassium-40. How old is Dike K? ________ Ma. Intrusion E? _______ Ma.

    Write down your answer in millions of years (no words or scientific notation). (example: if the answer is 65,000,000 years, just write 65)


    13.Based on the ages you calculated in Q12, when were units H and I deposited? What about units A and B? (Note: an age range is ok here!)



    14.Based on the ages you calculated in Q12, when did Fault C occur? (Note: an age range is ok here!)

    graph2.jpg

    Absolute dating charts.jpg
    Geologically important radioactive elements used for radiometric dating
    Daughter decay
    Useful dating
    Parent isotope
    product .
    Half-life (years)
    range (years)
    Datable materials
    Samarium-147
    Neodymium-143
    106 billion
    >10,000,000
    Garnets, micas
    Rubidium-87
    Strontium-87
    48.8 billion
    >10,000,000
    Potassium-bearing minerals (mica,
    feldspar, hornblende)
    Uranium-238
    Lead-206
    4.5 billion
    >10,000,000
    Uranium-bearing minerals (zircon,
    apatite, uraninite)
    Uranium-235
    Lead-207
    713 million
    >10,000,000
    Uranium-bearing minerals (zircon,
    apatite, uraninite)
    Potassium-40
    Argon-40
    1.3 billion
    >10,000
    Potassium-bearing minerals (mica,
    feldspar, hornblende)
    Carbon-14
    Nitrogen-14
    5,730
    100-70,000
    Organic materials
    Calculating the numerical age of a rock from the half-life of an isotope
    Multiply half-
    Multiply half-
    Parent atoms
    Parent:
    Number of
    life by
    Parent atoms
    Parent:
    Number of
    life by
    remaining
    daughter
    half-lives
    to determine
    remaining
    daughter
    half-lives
    to determine
    (9%)
    ratio
    elapsed
    age
    (%)
    ratio
    elapsed
    age
    100
    0
    0
    35.4
    0.547
    1//2
    1.500
    98.9
    89.90
    1/64
    0.016
    25
    0.333
    2
    2.000
    97.9
    46.62
    1/32
    0.031
    12.5
    0.143
    3
    3.000
    95.8
    22.81
    1/16
    0.062
    6.2
    0.066
    4
    4.000
    91.7
    11.05
    0.125
    84.1
    5.289
    0.250
    70.7
    2.413
    0.500
    0.05
    71
    Don't bother!
    There are too
    few parent
    50
    1.000
    1.000
    0.025
    12
    atoms to
    measure
    accurately
    enough.
    graph1.jpg
    X
    O
    K
    E
    H
    R
    B
    KEY TO SYMBOLS
    Sedimentary rocks
    Igneous rocks
    Metamorphic rocks
    Conglomerate
    Gravel
    Sandstone
    Siltstone
    Granite
    Basalt
    Schist
    Gneiss
    Other features
    Shale
    Clay
    Limestone
    Dolomite
    Zone of
    Unconformity
    Fault
    Contact
    contact
    metamorphism
    graph2.jpg

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