# the Pleistocene Epoch To go back to the dawn of the Holocene Epoch

on our trans-continental time-trip, you don't need to travel very far. In fact the trip doesn't even get you onto dry land... you're still on the Golden Gate Bridge. Considering how far we have to go, take a moment to consider how geologically recent are events that most folks would consider incredibly ancient. Time scales are odd that way. For example, did you know that the last Egyptian pharaoh, Cleopatra, lived closer in time to the Apollo moon landing than to the building of the Egyptian pyramids? We're pretty good at sequences of events, but we're not as intuitive about time scales that are bigger than us. Let's continue the trip. Hover your mousepoint over the GGB and zoom in until the scale bar on the lower righthand screen corner shows a 200 m scale-bar reference. You can switch between scales of km or miles by left-clicking on the scale bar itself in the lower right-hand corner of the map display. Your map should look basically like this: At this point we're going to start measuring distances along our route. If you're not familiar with plotting exact distances in Google Maps, this video is a short tutorial about the feature: https://youtu.be/kA-oNVdw2WM After learning how to measure distances in Google Maps, please also watch the following short video that I recorded to help you understand how to carry out precise distance-mapping along roads as you will need to do in this lab: https://youtu.be/EGzScrNBvQ4 Now, let's return to the GGB. Hover your mouse over the white marker circle in the midst of the GGB, then right-click. Choose the option "Measure Distance" in the popup menu. Now you can right-click on any other location and draw the exact distance between the points. Move your mouse up to where the bridge meets the land, at Lime Point, then right-click and choose "Distance to here". Your value may differ slightly, but by my count it looks like ~650 m to shore, which on our trip means we've gone back roughly 650,000 years to the middle of the Pleistocene Epoch, in the midst of an ice age. Let's travel to the beginning of the Pleistocene Epoch, which is also the beginning of our current Quaternary Period. Using your GTS, determine how far from the middle of the GGB you need to go along the route to reach back to the start of the Pleistocene. you'll need to start making a multi-point trace along the route. Zoom out your view of San Fransisco Bay slightly, until the scale bar shows 500 m. Begin tracing out your route point by point, left-clicking to lay down points along the way. Lay a trail of points until you reach the beginning of the Pleistocene. Question 3: How many km have you traveled from the GGB midpoint to get to the beginning of the Quaternary Period? Round to two significant digits. Question 4 What real-life museum landmark did you pass on your way to the start of the Quaternary Period? Answer must be complete spelled correctly to count for credit. To the Mesozoic Era Now, let's keep going. This time the goal will be to travel back to the beginning of the Neogene Period, just before the Quaternary Period. Use your GTS to determine how many km to travel to reach where the Neogene Period begins , which is also where the Miocene Epoch begins. Continue tracing your route point-to-point, and try to stay as close as possible to the road. Use a map scale bar resolution of 500 m to 1 km, but no larger or smaller. Question 5 How many km did you travel in total from the GGB to reach the start of the Neogene Period? Round to two significant digits. Question 6 At a scale bar resolution of 500 m - 1 km, at the beginning of the Neogene Period along your traced route, what is the closest town or municipality? Now zoom out to a scale bar of 5 km and look at the road so far. Your path of points won't look exactly like this but it should be fairly similar: Next stop: the beginning of the Paleogene Period, which also begins the Cenozoic Era in which we continue to live today. At that time-point the Mesozoic Era ended, and along with it the Cretaceous Period, about 70% of biodiversity on Earth, and all dinosaurs but a few birds. Extend your distance trace along the route until you reach the end of the Mesozoic Era. Question 7 How many km did you travel in total from the GGB to reach the end of the Mesozoic Era? Round to two significant digits. Question 8 (1 point) At a scale-bar resolution of 2 km, at the end of the Cretaceous Period along your traced route, what is the closest real-world town or municipality? Question 9 The Mesozoic Era extends back through the Cretaceous, Jurassic & Triassic Periods to 252 mya. Continue your trip through these periods along your route, stopping at the beginnings of the Cretaceous, Jurassic and Triassic Periods. For this leg of the trip, use a 5 km scale bar. How many km did you travel in total from the GGB to reach the beginning of the Cretaceous Period? Round to three (3) significant digits. Question 10 At a scale-bar resolution of 5 km, at the beginning of the Cretaceous Period along your traced route, what is the closest real-world town or municipality? Question 11 How many km did you travel in total from the GGB to reach the beginning of the Jurassic Period? Round to three (3) significant digits. Question 12 At a scale-bar resolution of 5 km, at the beginning of the Jurassic Period along your traced route, what is the closest real-world town or municipality? Question 13 How many km did you travel in total from the GGB to reach the beginning of the Triassic Period? Round to three (3) significant digits. Question 14 At a scale-bar resolution of 5 km, at the beginning of the Triassic Period along your traced route, what is the closest real-world town or municipality?

Unlock full access to Course Hero

Explore over 16 million step-by-step answers from our library

Subscribe to view answerlectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit a

,**et, consectetur adipiscing eli**

gue

sus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lore

,**ac, dict**

gue

ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam laci

,**or nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapi**

gue

m risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliqu

,**ec fac**

gue

cing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. F

,**ec facilisis. Pel**

gue

fficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet.

,**sus ante**

gue

fficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum

a mole**ce dui lectus, co**

gue

s ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor

,**ce dui l**

gue

ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie

,**sum dolor sit am**

gue

ec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel la

,**ec fac**

gue

consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices a

,**icitur laoreet. Nam ri**

gue

nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue

s a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec al

trices