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Introductory Geology Crustal Deformation 12.8 LAB EXERCISE Student Responses Name___________________________ This Lab Assignment must be mailed to...

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Page | 304 INTRODUCTORY GEOLOGY CRUSTAL DEFORMATION 12.8 LAB EXERCISE Student Responses Name___________________________ This Lab Assignment must be mailed to your Instructor. There is no online assessment for the Crustal Deformation Lab. Complete the entire assignment and mail to your instructor postmarked by the assessment deadline. You should make an extra copy to practice on and mail in a clean and neat version for grading. Make sure to include your name and staple all of the pages together. It is a good idea to make a copy of what you mail in, just in case it gets lost in the mail. For several parts of this lab there are multiple interpretations! Ask if you have questions. Part A (6 pts) Circle the correct answer to the following questions. 1. For the following diagram, determine the correct map symbol that would go in the oval box. a. b. c. d. 2. For the following diagram, determine the correct map symbol that would go in the oval box. a. b. c. d.
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Page | 305 INTRODUCTORY GEOLOGY CRUSTAL DEFORMATION 3. Using Google Earth, search for the following area in Pakistan: 27 50 35.00N 67 10 03.70E . Zoom out to an eye altitude of approximately 25,000 feet. The inclined layers in these folded rocks can be easily seen. As you view them, in which compass direction are the beds dipping? a. Northeast (NE) b. Southeast (SE) c. Northwest (NW) d. Southwest (SW) Part B (24 pts) For each of the following block diagrams complete the following: 1- Complete the diagram drawing in geological contacts on each side of the block; 2- Add sym- bols indicating the strike and dip of each geological layer as well as symbols docu- menting any other geological features (include the direction of movement for any faults); 3- In the space provided under the block diagram write the speciFc name of the geology feature in the block diagram. Please note that in several of the blocks the ages of the layers are provided.
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Page | 286 12.1 INTRODUCTION The Earth is an active planet shaped by dynamic forces. Such forces can build mountains and crumple and fold rocks. As rocks respond to these forces, they un- dergo deformation, which results in changes in shape and/or volume of the rocks. The resulting features are termed geologic structures. This deformation can pro- duce dramatic and beautiful scenery, as evidenced in Figure 12.1, which shows the deformation of originally Fat (horizontal) rock layers. Why is it important to study deformation within the crust? Such studies can provide us with a record of the past and the forces that operated then. The correct interpretation of features created during deformation is critical in the petroleum and mining industry. It is also essential for engineering. Understanding the behav- ior of deformed rocks is necessary to create and maintain safe engineering struc- Figure 12.1 | Rocks that have been deformed along the coast of Italy Author: Randa Harris Source: Original Work License: CC BY-SA 3.0 12 Crustal Deformation Randa Harris and Bradley Deline
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Page | 287 INTRODUCTORY GEOLOGY CRUSTAL DEFORMATION tures. When proper geological planning is not considered in engineering, disasters can strike. For example, the Vajont Dam was constructed at Monte Toc, Italy in the early 1960’s. The place was a poor choice for a dam, as the valley was narrow, thorough geological tests were not performed, and the area surrounding the dam was prone to large landslides. The steep canyon walls were composed of limestone with solution cavities, not known for its stability, and shifting and fracturing of rock that occurred during the flling oF the reservoir went unheeded. In 1963, a massive landslide in the area displaced much of the water in the dam, causing it to override the top oF the dam and ±ood the many villages downstream, resulting in the deaths oF almost 2,000 people (²igure 12.2). 12.1.1 Learning Outcomes After completing this chapter, you should be able to: • Understand the di³erent types oF stress that rocks undergo, and their responses to stress Demonstrate an understanding of the concepts of strike and dip • Recognize the di³erent types oF Folds and Faults, and the Forces that create them Use block diagrams to display geologic features Create a geologic cross-section 12.1.2 Key Terms Anticline Basin Compressional forces Contact Dip Dip-slip fault Dome Geologic cross-section Geologic map Horst & graben • Monocline Normal fault • Reverse Fault Shear forces Strain Stress Strike Strike-slip fault Syncline Tensional forces Thrust fault Figure 12.2 | An image of the Vajont reservoir shortly after the massive landslide (you can see the scar from the landslide on the right, and the dam is located in the foreground on the left). Author: Unknown Source: Wikimedia Commons License: Public Domain
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Geology Lab work (APA) detailed and checked twice.doc

Geology 1 Geology
Your Name (First M. Last)
School or Institution Name (University at Place or Town, State) Geology 2 LAB WORK
Part A
1. c
2.a
3. a. Northeast (NE)
Part B Geology 3 Geology Part C 4...

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