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To test the efficacy of a health education program in reducing the risk of
foodbome and waterborne diseases, the residents of two Peruvian villages were given an
intensive health education program. At the end of two years, the incidence rates of
important waterborne and food-borne diseases in these villages were compared with
those in two similar control Villages without any education program. You would like to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of delivering health
services through your clinic. After selecting a 10% sample of all patient visits during the
past six months, you are able to characterize the patient population who used your clinic
in terms of age, race, sex, method of referral, diagnostic category, therapy provided,
method of payment, daily patient load, and clinic staff work schedules. You are interested in finding out whether middle-aged men who have premature
ventricular contractions (PVCs) are at greater risk of developing a myocardial infarction
(heart attack) than men whose heartbeats are regular. Electrocardiogram (ECG)
examinations are performed on all male office employees 35 years of age or older who
work for oil companies in Houston. The ECG tracings are classified as irregular or
regular. Five years later, myocardial infarction rates are compared between those with and those without baseline ECG irregularities.

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