B. The War Begins
On May 1754, the first battle was fought in Pennsylvania for control of
Twenty-one year-old, , commanded a small force of British colonists at . The French far outnumbered the British and the colonists returned home to Virginia defeated and disgraced.
C. The Albany Plan of Union
While Washington was trying to hold Fort Necessity, a group of delegates from seven colonies in the North meet in New York in June 1754. These delegates met to develop a plan to become allies with the Iroquois League.
, a delegate from Pennsylvania, proposed the Albany Plan of Union, which called for a permanent union of the colonies led by a grand council of representatives elected from each colony.
The colonies rejected the Albany Plan of Union because it gave too much power to a central government. The provided a model for the future government of the United States.
D. Early Battles
The British suffered early defeats because they were trained to fight in the open and in straight lines.
General Edward commanded a force of 1500 British troops and 450 Colonial militia (or armed citizens) who serve as soldiers, in July 1755.
One-third of the British force was killed or wounded in the three hour battle in western Pennsylvania including Braddock.
George Washington and Daniel Boone were among those who survived.
E. The Tide Turns
In 1756 Great Britain formally declared war on France as fighting spread to Europe (Seven Years War). , Britain's prime minister, raised taxes to fight the war.
In July 1758, the British captured Fort Duquesne from the French and renamed it Fort Pitt. The supported the British after the French retreated into Canada, helping to capture Fort Ticonderoga and Fort Niagara.
In the spring of 1759, Quebec fell to the British, commanded by General .
By 1761, the British had seized Fort Detroit and other French posts to end the war.
II. Effects of the War
A. Treaty of Paris in
gained control of all French lands in Canada, exclusive rights to Caribbean slave trade, and commercial dominance in India.
France lost possessions in Canada, most of her empire in India, and claims to lands east of the .
Spain got all French lands west of the Mississippi River and New Orleans, but lost to England.
B. Colonist to Britain Weakens
Despite the victory, the British felt the colonists did not provide enough support for the long costly war. On the other hand, the American colonists were shocked by the weakness of British military tactics and wanted to be led by colonial officers.
The war changed the colonists' feelings about the British:
• Colonists lost respect for British military power.
• Colonists believed the British did not share the same values as Americans or treat them with appropriate .