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<br/><br/><br/><br/>this is a projrct i have to submit but the professor

asked me to add the paragraph below can you help me on adding it so it can make fit.


Because low employee morale is the root cause of Engstrom's decline in productivity, this study is recommending the application of an organizational behavior modification model that addresses specific behavior modification and reinforcement as a solution. The application of the Expectancy model of motivation is a behavioral science application that can lead to organizational change at Engstrom. The Expectancy model of motivation encourages organizations to design a motivational climate that will stimulate appropriate employee behavior. At Engstrom this would be to motivate employees to increase productivity, improve quality control and decrease (or eliminate) antagonistic behavior such as inventory theft. The largest and most difficult task would be the management of employee expectations relative to expected outcomes of productivity. Newstrom (2015) describes how the Expectancy model differs from other motivational models because it embraces the Theory Y assumptions about people as capable individuals that are driven by their characteristics of individuality rather than unmet needs or the application of rewards and punishments as suggested by other motivational models (p. 135). In additional, Engstrom management would be challenged to find a way to reliably measure valence, expectancy and instrumentality.  Although this is one of the limitations of the Expectancy model identified by Newstrom (2015), I believe that the existing structure of communication and organizational development created by the initial implementation of the Scanlon plan can accomplish these goals over time.
Another benefit to Engstrom in the application of the Expectancy model of motivation is that managers are challenged to address (or reevaluate) employee expectations by 1) establishing strong relationships between desired behaviors and effective rewards; and 2) recognizing the legitimacy of employee perceptions as a real and tangible component of motivation by actively clarifying these perceptions. In the case of Engstrom, management would have to address the relationship between desired levels of productivity and effective rewards that is not only inclusive of monetary gains as in the paid monetary bonus, but other non-monetary rewards of value to employees. Addressing valence or an attempt to simplify the bonus calculation would be extremely beneficial to the behavior modification model of expectancy. Employees would be able to make a clear distinction between their performance-to-reward expectancy. In this example, Management becomes the agents of change within the organization and could either simplify the existing bonus calculation or simply change the bonus calculation to a more familiar and easily understood form of measurement such as units produced versus a ratio of payroll cost to sales value of inventory. This alternative method of deriving a bonus calculation would be an adaptation of the Improshare gainsharing plan. The Improshare plan focuses on sharing gains in physical unit productivity with employees. As stated in the case study, the employees were already familiar with a similar form of goal setting prior to the adoption of the Scanlon plan.
An alternative method of approach by management could be as stated earlier in this study, to develop a focused and dedicated group of represented employees that would be responsible for the continuous education throughout the company regarding business acumen and how the changing elements of the business and its environment effects or translates to the Scanlon plan. Forming a quality council of leaders and managers to evaluate and guide organizational improvement efforts would be highly beneficial to Engstrom and build employee self-efficacy.
As stated earlier, the architecture of the Scanlon plan can be modified to adapt these improved motivating principles into the existing infrastructure. Because it's a small, single organization, leveraging off the initial investments of implementing the Scanlon bonus plan should be considered. The timeframe to implement the Expectancy model would be a long-term plan of effort anytime between one to three years.  Short-term changes that can occur is the payment of any future bonus to employee's as a separate form of payment from their regular pay. This would eliminate the sense of entitlement and promote a sense of clarity of employee perceptions and management expectations between effort-performance and reward-performance. In this solution, Engstrom management, the existing plant committees, union representatives and employees become the agents of change within the organization.

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