208 Organisational Behaviour: A Contemporary Approach Table 5.
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Think carefully about the sessions you attend as part of your programme of studies. While your lecturers cannot really be considered to be leaders, or even heads, they are still responsible for achieving what could loosely be described as a task-related output; that is, a class that successfully passes the course or module. However, achieving this is something that relies on student endeavours as well. Examine Table 5.3 and try to answer the questions below.

  1. To what extent does achieving the task-related output rely on leadership substitutes or leadership neutralisers?
  2. Do these reduce the need for relationship-orientated behaviour, or taskorientated behaviour?
  3. Do these substitutes or neutralisers exist because of characteristics of the students, of the task or of the organisation?

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208 Organisational Behaviour: A Contemporary Approach Table 5.3 Substitutes for leadership Characteristics NeutraIISes ileutrallses relationship-orientated task-orientated leadership leadership Of the subordinate Ability, experience, training, knowledge No Yes Need for independence Yes Yes Professional orientation Yes Yes Indifference towards organisational rewards Yes Yes 01' the task Unambiguous and routine No Yes No variation in method No Yes Provides its own feedback on accomplishment No Yes Intrinsically satisfying Yes No Of the organisation FonnaliSation (explicit objectives, plans and job Specifications) No Yes Inflexibility (fr xed rules and procedures) No Yes Active advisory staff roles with clear areas of responsibility No Yes Close-knit. cohesive work groups Yes Yes Organisational rewards that are n at within the leader's control Yes Yes Physical distance between superior and subordinates Yes Yes Source: Kerr and lermier 1978, p 378. However, some of these do not completely remove the need for either or both aspects

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