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Snowden's revelations reignited the public debate about how to strike a balance between security and liberty in the age of global terrorism and...

"IT and ethical issues"

1. Demonstrate your understanding of the relationship between IT and ethical issues.

2. Discuss the role of Information Technology in creating the ethical dilemma in the Snowden case study.

3. Perform an ethical analysis of the Snowden case (attached).

4. Implication and lesson learned from the case study.


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Snowden's revelations reignited the public debate about how to strike a balance between security and liberty in
the age of global terrorism and powerful technology . U. S. officials have stated that PRISM , in concert with other
Techniques , has helped thwart dozens of terrorist plots in the U.S . and overseas . President Obama argued that
modest Encroachments on privacy , including keeping records at phone numbers called and the length of calls*
that can be used to track terrorists , though not listening in to calls , ware worthwhile to protect the country . These*
programs were authorized by Congress and regularly reviewed by federal courts .
Critics charge that PRISM represents a massive invasion of privacy . They believe that routinely giving phone
records and E- mail contents to the federal government is a violation of the Fourth Amendment's prohibition*
against search and seizure without a warrant and probable cause , even though this Amendment applies only to`
personal papers in the home . More than half at Americans surveyed by a Washington Post - ABC NEWS Poll in*
November 2013 said that the NSA surveillance has intruded on their personal privacy rights . However , U .S .
courts have ruled that modem communication looks effectively bypass the Fourth Amendment . Under these*
rulings , our telephone data - whom we call and how long we are connected_ are not considered to be under
traditional Fourth Amendment protection ( through something called the Third Party Doctrine , which holds that
knowingly disclosing information to a third party - in this case , an Internet service provider - abrogates that*
protection ) . By the same reasoning , our E -mail's are generally considered unprotected as well ( though there is
Some legal ambiguity here! _
A panel appointed by President Obama has called for a major overhaul of NSA Operations . In the meantime ,
Snowden has been charged with espionage and theft and has been living in Russia . Among those worried about*
NSA Encroachment on individual privacy , Snowden has been praised as a hero . Among those more concerned*
with national security and the need to protect the nation and it's citizens from terrorist and other attacks , Snowden
is vilified as a traitor . The debate - and it is a very heated one - continues .
Sources: James Glanz, Jeff Larson , and Andrew IN` Lehrer ,"Spy Agencies Tap Date Streaming from Phone Apps ," NEW York
Times , January 27 , 2014; Edward Snowden , Whistle- Blower ,* New York Times. January 1, 2014- Liam Fox ,*Snowden and His
Accomplices .*" Wall Street Journal , April 15. 2014; DEREK Satya Khanna , The NSA Scandal- Is It "Anything Goes " in the War on*
Terror ?" National Review Caune , June 12. 2013; James Risen and Laura Patras . W. $ 4. Gathers Data an Social Connections*
Of U. S. Citizens* NEW York Times. September 26, 2013. Siobhan Garman and Jennifer Valentina- Devries ,* New Detail's Show
Broader NSA Surveillance Reach," Wall Street Journal August 21 , 2013. James Risen and Enc Lichtblau. How the U.S. LIKES*
Technology to Mine More Data More Quickly . NEW York Times , June & . Paul Fand , Balancing Security and Liberty in the AGE Of
Big Data ,* Bloomberg Businessweek; June 13. 201}. and Scott Shane , NO MoreEr Too Minuscule for All - Consuming NSA."
New York Times , November 2, 2013.
Case Study Questions
1 . Perform an ethical analysis at the PRISM program and NSA surveillance activities . What is the ethical
dilemma presented by this case ?`
2 . Describe the role of information technology in creating this ethical dilemma .
3. DO you think the NSA should be allowed to continue its electronic surveillance programs ? Why or why
not?
These basic concepts farm, the underpinning of an Ethical analysis at information systems and those who manage*
them . First , information technologies are filtered through social institutions , organizations , and individuals*

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Systems do not have impacts by themselves . Whatever information system impacts exist are products of*
institutional , organizational , and individual actions and behaviors . Second , responsibility for the consequences all
Technology falls clearly on the institutions , organizations , and individual managers who choose to use the*
Technology . Using information technology in a socially responsible manner means that you can and will be held
accountable for the consequences at your actions . Third , in an ethical , political society , individuals and others can
recover damages done to them through a set of law's characterized by due process .
Ethical Analysis
When confronted with a situation that seems to present ethical issues , how should you analyze it ? The following
five - step process should help :`
1. Identity and describe the facts clearly . Find out who did what to whom , and where , when , and how . In
many instances , you will be surprised at the errors in the initially reported facts , and often you will find that*
simply getting the facts straight helps define the solution . It also helps to get the appusing parties involved
In an ethical dilemma to agree on the facts .`
2 . Define the conflict or dilemma and identify the higher-order values involved . Ethical , social , and
political issues always reference higher values . The parties to a dispute all claim to be pursuing higher
values le _g., freedom , privacy , protection of property , and the free enterprise system; . Typically , an ethical
issue involves a dilemma : two diametrically opposed courses of action that support worthwhile values . For
example , the chapter -opening case study illustrates two competing values ! the need to improve access to
digital content and the need to respect the property rights of the owners of that content .`
3 . Identify the stakeholders . Every ethical , social , and political issue has stakeholders . players in the game*
who have an interest in the outcome , who have invested in the situation , and usually who have vocal
Opinions . Find out the Identity' at these groups and what they want . This will be useful later when designing*
a solution ."
4. Identify the options that you can reasonably take ."You may find that none at the options satisfy all the
interests involved , but that some options do a better job than others . Sometimes arriving at a good or*
ethical solution may not always be a balancing at consequences to stakeholders .
5. Identify the potential consequences of your options . Some options may be Ethically correct but
disastrous from other points of view . Other options may work in one instance but not in other similar
instances . Always ask yourself ,"What if' I choose this option consistently over time ?`

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Candidate Ethical Principles
Once your analysis is complete , what Ethical principles or rules should you use to make a decision ?" What higher -
ander values should inform your judgment ? Although you are the only one who can decide which among many*
ethical principles you will follow , and how you will prioritize them , it is helpful to consider some ethical principles
with deep roots in many cultures that have survived throughout recorded history .`
1 . DO unto others as you would have them do unto you (the Golden Rule\
1 . Putting yourself into the*
place of others , and thinking at yourself as the object of the decision , can help you think about fairness in
decision making .
2 . H an action is not right for everyone to take . it is not right for anyone !\
I'mtimanuel Kant's Categorical Imperative*
1 . Ask yourself , " everyone did this , could the*
organization , or society , survive ?"
3. It an action cannot be taken repeatedly , it is not right to take at all . This is the slippery - slope rule : An action
may bring about a small change now that is acceptable , but if it is repeated , it would bring unacceptable
changes in the long run . In the vernacular , it might be stated as " once started down a slippery path , you
may not be able to stop . "
4 . Take the action that achieves the higher or greater value ( Utilitarian Principle*
1 . This rule assumes
you can prioritize values in a rank ander and understand the consequences of various courses of action .
5. Take the action that produces the least hamm or the least potential cast ! Risk Aversion Principle*
\ .
Some actions have Extremely high failure casts at very low probability {_ _ _, building a nuclear generating
Facility in an urban areas or extremely high failure casts of moderate probability 'speeding and automobile*
accidents ) . Avoid these high - failure _ cast actions , paying greater attention to high- failure_cast palential at!
moderate to high probability .`
& . Assume that virtually all tangible and intangible objects are owned by someone else unless there is a
Specific declaration otherwise . " This is the Ethical " no free lunch " rule*
`I'll something someone else
has created is useful to you , it has value , and you should assume the creator wants compensation for this
work.
Actions that do not Easily pass these rules deserve close attention and a great deal of caution . The appearance*
at unethical behavior may do as much harm to you and your company as actual unethical behavior .
Professional Codes of Conduct
When groups of people claim to be professionals , they take on special rights and obligations because of their*
special claims to knowledge , wisdom , and respect. Professional codes of conduct are promulgated by*
associations of professionals , such as the American Medical Association (AMA ) , The American Bar Association*
CABA] , The Association of Information Technology Professionals [AITF ;, and the Association for Computing*
Machinery CALMLY. These professional groups take responsibility for the partial regulation at their professions by
determining Entrance qualifications and competence . Codes of Ethics are promises by professions to regulate*
themselves in the general interest of society . For example , avoiding harm to others , honoring property rights*
including intellectual property ;, and respecting privacy are among the General Moral Imperatives of the ACM'S
Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct .

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Interactive Session : management Edward Snowden : Traitor or Protector
of Privacy ?"
In June 2013 , Edward Snowden , a technology contract worker for the NSA provided details of the NSA
surveillance program called PRISM to the British newspaper The Guardian . Mr. Snowden had broad access to
NSA Miles because he was working for the agency in Hawaii , helping to manage the NSA's computer systems in
an outpost that focuses on China and North Korea . He was one of 1. 2 million people in the United States who
have top security clearance .*
Snowden used inexpensive and widely available* web crawler" software to scrape data out of NSA systems and*
kept at it even after he was briefly challenged by agency officials . A web crawler automatically moves from Web
site to Web site , following links embedded in each document , and can be programmed to copy everything in its*
path. U.S. intelligence officials believe Snowden accessed roughly 1 . 7 million Miles this way . Because Snowden*
worked at a NSA outpast that had not yet been upgraded with modern security measures , his copying of huge
volumes of data raised few alarms .`
Snowden told The Guardian that he had grown concerned about how massive and invasive the NSA system had
become . He described how N.SA collects information on telephone calls , E -mails , social network pastings , search
queries , and other WE'D communications of Internet users in the United States . The data are provided to the*
government by the data-gathering giants at Silicon Valley - Google , Facebook , Twitter , Microsoft , Yahoo , and*
other large Internet firms- as well as telecommunications service providers such as Verizon . The availability and
relatively low cost of contemporary data management and analytics technologies described Earlier in this chapter
make it possible for the NSA to stare and conduct very sophisticated analysis at massive quantities of data .
The purpose at PRISM is to identify terrorists and their plans before the plans can be executed . PRISM does not
collect the contents at Internet communications , but only the meta-data (essentially who is communicating with*
wham ! _ Using this data, PRISM constructs a social graph at some Americans" social connections , identifying their*
associates , their locations at certain times . their traveling companions and other personal information . Once*
PRISM identifies suspicious patterns , it then requests more detailed information from these firms that can include*
the contents of the communication .`
NSA and government officials claim the program is legal under existing statutes , has been in operation for many
years with Congressional oversight , and provides for judicial review of active surveillance at specific people . The
phone- records program was built upon a provision in the LISA Patriot Act , passed a month after the S/1 1 terrorist*
attacks . While aimed at communications with and among foreign nationals , it is apparent that the entire U. S .
population , citizens and non -citizens , is included in the NSA data gathering effort . The NSA programs are*
approved and overseen by the secret Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court .`
The documents leaked by Snowden included details about the NSA data analysis and data visualization too!
Boundless Informant , a secret court order requiring Verizon to hand the NSA millions of Americans " phone*
records daily , and the surveillance at French citizens " phone and Internet records , along with those at high -profile*
individuals from the world of business or politics . The documents also described *Keyscore , which allows for the
collection of almost anything done on the Internet , including the content of personal email , Web search history .
and browsing patterns .
The documents revealed that the NSA was harvesting millions of email and instant messaging contact lists .
searching email content , tracking and mapping the location of cell phones , and undermining attempts at
encryption to pinpoint targets for government hacking and to bolster surveillance . The NSA was shown to be
secretly tapping into Yahoo and Google data centers to collect information from hundreds of millions of account
holders worldwide by tapping undersea cables using the MUSCULAR program .`
Additionally , the NSA, the U.S . Central Intelligence Agency ( CIA ) and British intelligence agency GCHQ Spied on
users of Second Life and World at Warcraft by creating make -believe characters to hide in plain sight . NSA*
intelligence - gathering operations had targeted Brazil's largest oil company , Petrobras . Tensions flared between*
the U . S. and some of its close allies after it was revealed that the U.S . had spied on Brazil , France , Mexico .
Britain , China , Germany and Spain , as well as 35 world leaders , including German Chancellor Angela Merkel !

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