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we learned about The Golden Age of Children's literature (1850-1915) and that

The Little Princess written by Frances Hodgson is considered a literature of the Golden Age: education, entertainment, and artistic merit. In Chapters 1-5 of the novel "The Little Princess', where do you see evidence of these three qualities? When writing a response, make specific reference to how Hintz and Tribunella describe them. Do you think the novel balances these three qualities successfully, or is one or two favored? Provide specific examples from the text to illustrate your point. 


https://etc.usf.edu/lit2go/33/a-little-princess/354/chapter-1-sara/


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Ch s Literature The Golden Age 2 of 3 Lewis Carroll would later parody this poem in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, come to emphasize pleasure and creative expression in addition to instruction. demonstrating how some writers resist and even lampoon the impulse to instruct Freed from the demand to craft stories or poems that taught lessons, writers were child readers in children's literature. Nevertheless, instructional, religious, and able to chart new literary paths, explore new genres and forms, and plumb more didactic works for children, along with general-audience and crossover texts, pre- complex characters or emotions. Lewis Carroll's 1865 publication of Alice's A vailed until the revolution initiated by Newbery and others in the mid eighteenth tures in Wonderland, a highly imaginative and com rk that uses nonsense century. While writing for children would remain intensely didactic through the and humor to lampoon didacticism and delight child read nineteenth century, it was characterized by a trend toward increasingly imagina- starting point for the Golden Age. A significant break from the ongoing tendend tive and pleasurable works that would sow the seeds of the Golden Age of chil- to use children's literature to instruct, Alice's Adventures highl dren's literature in the nineteenth century. and creative possibilities of writing for youth. While didacticism continued to be a prominent feature of children's literature after Alice, and remains so today, it no longer dominates writing for youth. Rather, didacticism occurs in tension with THE GOLDEN AGE pleasure and artistry, as we discuss below. Between roughly 1865 and 1915, the period known as the Golden Age of chil- The Growth of the Children's Literature Industry dren's literature, some of the best-known classics were written and published. With the advent of a distinct market for children's literature during the mid Even a partial list is extensive: eighteenth century, a struggle ensued within the enterprise of children's literature between the adult belief that chil- The Water Babies (1863) Charles Kingsley dren's books should be educational Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865) Lewis Carroll and the creative and commercial impulse to entertain children and Hans Brinker (1865) Mary Mapes Dodge to craft literary works for them. Elsie Dinsmore (1867) Martha Finley Many societal changes that occurred during the nineteenth century led Little Women (1868) Louisa May Alcott to a greater emphasis on innovation Ragged Dick (1868) Horatio Alger and imagination: children's culture expanded with the spread of indus- The Princess and the Goblin (1872) George MacDonald trialism and the rise of mass pro- What Katy Did (1872) Susan Coolidge (Sarah Woolsey) duction, more children attended school and learned to read, more The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876) Mark Twain (Samuel families attained middle-class Langhorne Clemens) status and could afford books for Black Beauty (1877) Anna Sewell children, children themselves came Toby Tyler, or Ten Weeks with a Circus (1881) James Otis Kaler to be seen as precious objects to spoil, and more writers looked to chil- Treasure Island (1883) Robert Louis Stevenson dren as a viable audience. Although A Child's Garden of Verses (1885) Robert Louis Stevenson traces of didacticism would re- THE PRINCESS AND THE GOBLIN, ILLUSTRATION main, children's literature would BY ARTHUR HUGHES. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885) Mark Twain apter 2: The Early History of Children's Literature The Golden Age Little Lord Fauntleroy (1885) Frances Hodgson Burnett The Jungle Book (1894) Rudyard Kipling The Story of the Treasure Seekers (1899) Edith Nesbit The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (1900) L. Frank Baum Kim (1901) Rudyard Kipling The Tale of Peter Rabbit (1901) Beatrix Potter Five Children and It (1902) Edith Nesbit Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm (1903) Kate Douglas Wiggin Peter Pan (1904); Peter and Wendy (191) J. M. Barrie A Little Princess (1905) Frances Hodgson Burnett The Railway Children (1906) Edith Nesbit Anne of Green Gables (1908) L. M. Montgomery The Wind in the Willows (1908) Kenneth Grahame A Girl of the Limberlost (1909) Gene Stratton-Porter The Secret Garden (191) Frances Hodgson Burnett Pollyanna (1913) Eleanor Porter Penrod (1914) Booth Tarkington When people refer to "the classics of children's literature," it is most likely the Golden Age that is being invoked. The Crossover Appeal of Golden Age Books Earlier we discussed works written for adults or a general audience that nonethe- less possessed crossover appeal for children. In contrast, the classic works of the Golden Age, though ostensibly written for children or youth, held much appeal for adults. According to Jerry Griswold, "Many of the top-selling books in the United States during the [nineteenth] century were children's books. What may be equally obvious is that, since children weren't the only ones who bought and read books, these works must also have been unusually popular among adults" WGLI AND BAGHEERA FROM THE JUNGLE BOOK, ILLUSTRATION BY EDWARD JULIUS DETMOLD.

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Chapter 2: The Early History of Children's Literature The Golden Ag (vill). Beverly Lyon Clark argues in Kiddie Lit: The Cultural Construction of Chil- dren's Literature (2003) that during the Golden Age, children and adults were approaches to children's literature, individual works bear the traces of the choice increasingly imagined as segregated and distinct audiences. Thus, while Little or compromises made among the impulses to instruct, to please, to profit, to Lord Fauntleroy (1885) was read and praised by children and adults alike upon innovate, or to create something "serious" or "literary." its initial publication, by the early decades of the twentieth century, books writ- For instance, in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, Carroll stresses the plea ten for or marketed to children had much smaller followings among adults, sure of the reader and the practice of literary experimentation. Alice is full of joke: testifying to the ways children's literature was coming to be imagined as only and whimsical uses of language that work to delight readers, and Carroll expert- for children. There might be some notable exceptions to this trend, such as the ments with children's literature by insisting on nonsense or pushing the bound- work of J. R. R. Tolkien, and the bifurcation of child and adult audiences might aries of traditional children's fare. In these ways, the book emphasizes pleasure have been reversed somewhat by crossover blockbusters such as the Harry Pot- and craft over instruction, even if some instruction remains. Kate Greenaway's ter series. Nonetheless, as the worlds of children and adults became increasingly picturebook A Apple Pie (1886) combines prominent images of the alphabet with segregated, the distinct market of children's books emerged over the course of the richly illustrated scenes and short phrases highlighting each letter. Designed to eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and the children's book as we have come teach children the alphabet, it appears to be primarily didactic, but the illustra- to know it was born. . tions,. completed by Greenaway herself, are so noteworthy for their distinctive- ness and merit that we cannot ignore the artistry and craft of A Apple Pie. Other The Tensions That Define Children's Literature works, such as Horatio Alger's series books, tend to follow a formula in which a A defining feature of the Golden Age of children's literature is that, on the whole, poor boy, often an orphan, manages to advance in the world through a mixture works published during this period emphasize pleasure and creativity, not just of luck and pluck. These popular works often emphasized the reader's pleasure didacticism and education. As we have seen, the history of children's literature, rather than literary innovation, while instruction remained a secondary motive. both before and after the Golden Age, can be understood in terms of three sets of All works for children represent complex negotiations between these differ- competing or overlapping functions: ent functions. In the chapter on censorship (Ch. 12), we will discuss how many of the controversies surrounding children's literature can be understood in terms 1. Didacticism, education, and practicality: Some believed that children's litera- of conflicting ideas about which set of functions should be emphasized in writing ture, even fiction and poetry, should fulfill the practical function of socializing for children. During the Golden Age, pleasure and aesthetics came to the fore for children to behave or to think properly by providing models of good behavior the first time. By the twentieth century, children's and young adult literature had or by teaching children specific lessons. come into their own, and many "contemporary classics" such as A. A. Milne's Winnie-the-Pooh (1926), C. S. Lewis's The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe 2. Pleasure, popularity, and profitability: Others were primarily concerned with (1950), E. B. White's Charlotte's Web (1952), Maurice Sendak's Where the Wild establishing children's literature as a commercial, money-making enterprise, Things Are (1963), and S. E. Hinton's The Outsiders (1967) would come to be added and thus they were interested in producing works for children that would be to the distinguished list of works written during the earlier Golden Age. Under- pleasurable and popular. standing this early history of children's literature and the tensions and contro- 3. Aesthetics, innovation, and literariness: Some understood children's literature versies that shaped it is crucial to the study of more current works for children. as a form of creative and artistic expression and were motivated by the desire to produce aesthetic and innovative literary works for children. The complex and layered qualities of children's literature are produced by the tensions between these different and sometimes contradictory impulses and functions. As writers and publishers attempt to negotiate between these three

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