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Deductive and Inductive Arguments.

 Determine the characteristics of the following arguments.

_____ 1. Either Boston University is located in the United States or it's located in China. Boston University is not located in the United States. Therefore, Boston University is located in China.  

a.Valid, unsound;        b. strong, cogent;        c. weak, cogent;           d. invalid, sound



_____ 2. John F. Kennedy was a Democratic president, and he cheated on his wife.  Bill Clinton was a Democratic president, and he cheated on his wife.  Therefore, I suppose that Joe Biden will eventually cheat on his wife.


a.Valid, unsound;        b. weak, cogent;          c. invalid, unsound;                d. weak, non-cogent



_____ 3. If Toronto is a city in Mexico, then Toronto is south of the border.  Toronto is a city in Mexico. So, Toronto is south of the border.


a.Valid, unsound;        b. weak, cogent;          c. invalid, unsound;                d. invalid, sound



_____ 4. Exercise is good for the vast majority of people.  Therefore, it would be good for my seventy-four-year-old mother—who, by the way, has never run a competitive race in her life—to run in the 2021 Boston Marathon.



a.Valid, unsound;        b. weak, cogent;          c. weak, non-cogent;               d. invalid, sound



_____ 5. It is true that all voters are citizens.  Therefore, because Professor Mason is a citizen, he must be a voter.


a.Valid, unsound;        b. strong, cogent;        c. invalid, unsound;                d. invalid, sound




_____ 6. Every student in this class was born before 1964.  Thus, it's probably the case that no student in our class had a cell-phone when she was ten years of age.  (Hint: no one in class was born before 1964, only the professor was born in 1964)



a.Valid, unsound;        b. strong, cogent;        c. strong, non-cogent;             d. invalid, sound

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