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<ol><li>Develop a one sentence summary definition of <em>ENSO</em> (<em>El

Niño/Southern Oscillation</em>).</li><li>In the ENSO cycle, by how many degrees does the sea surface temperature typically deviate from normal within the defined Niño 3.4 monitoring region of the equatorial Pacific Ocean, and how do the deviations <em>differ</em> between El Niño and La Niña (hint: interpret the <em>Ocean Temperature Departure from Normal - Niño 3.4</em> graph in the <strong>ENSO</strong> section)?</li><li>In comparison to the <em>neutral</em> phase of ENSO (i.e., in comparison to <em>normal</em> conditions), what are the conditions in the South Pacific during the <em><u>El Niño</u> </em>phase of ENSO, in terms of the pressure patterns, relative strength and direction of the trade winds, upwelling along the west coast of South America, sea surface temperatures, and rain patterns?</li><li>In comparison to the <em>neutral</em> phase of ENSO (i.e., in comparison to <em>normal</em> conditions), what are the conditions in the south Pacific during the <em><u>La Niña</u></em> phase of ENSO, in terms of the pressure patterns, relative strength and direction of the trade winds, upwelling along the west coast of South America, sea surface temperatures, and rain patterns?</li><li>Changes in weather associated with ENSO are due to its effect on the <em>jet stream</em>. Explain, in general terms, how ENSO affects the pattern of the jet stream and how that, in turn, affects global weather patterns.</li><li>Summarize the changes from a <em>normal</em> winter (December-February) in air temperature and precipitation patterns in the United States during an <em>El Niño </em>phase of ENSO (hint: see the summary graphic in the <strong>Weather Impacts </strong>section - for example: the typical changes from a normal winter in air temperature and precipitation patterns in the south-central and southeast United States, during an El Niño phase of the ENSO cycle, are <em>wetter </em>and<em> cooler</em> than normal.).</li><li>Summarize the changes from a <em>normal</em> winter (December-February) in air temperature and precipitation patterns in the United States during a <em>La Niña </em>phase of ENSO (hint: see the summary graphic in the <strong>Weather Impacts </strong>section).</li><li>Summarize the change from normal in the number and intensity of tropical cyclones in the North Atlantic during a moderate to strong <em>El Niño </em>phase of ENSO.</li></ol>

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