9 The wiggles in the graph shown in Figure 18.4a in the book demonstrate an annual cycle in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. In this...
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18.9 The wiggles in the graph shown in Figure 18.4a in the book demonstrate an annual cycle in
atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. In this problem, you are given a table of mean
monthly carbon dioxide concentrations (in parts per million, below) during 2014 at Mauna Loa
(latitude 19.50N), the South Pole (latitude 90 S), and Barrow, AK (latitude 71.3.N). To help
visualize the variations, here's a graph of the data.
Monthly Mean CO2 concentrations (ppm) - 2014
410
-Mauna Loa
-South Pole
-Barrow
405
400
395
390
385
January
February
March
April
June
August
September
October
November
December
a. When do the lowest CO2 concentrations occur at Mauna Loa and Barrow (simply give a
couple months)? Why does the minimum occur at that time of the year?
Mauna
South
Barro
Loa
Pole
W
January
397.9
394.2
402.6
February
398.1
394.0
406.3
March
399.5
394.0
405.1
April
401.3
394.1
405.9
May
401.9
394.4
405.7
June
401.3
394.7
403.4
July
399.1
395.2
394.1
August
397.2
395.7
388.7
Septembe
395.4
396.0
389.8
October
395.7
396.1
394.7
Novembe
397.2
396.0
401.7
5
Decembe
398.8
396.1
403.5
b. When are the times of the maximum and minimum CO2 concentrations at the South Pole?
Why is this so different than what is observed at Mauna Loa and Barrow?
c. What was the annual range (difference between maximum and minimum) in mean monthly
CO2 concentrations in 2014 at each of these locations? At which of the stations is the
annual range largest? Smallest? Explain why there is such a large difference in annual
ranges among the stations.

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