CWS 10 - 2 -FL20 PO39 28.244 1020 27 21 578 12 16 132 8 178 18 HY 12 14 184 25 57 26H 41 46 232 2 132 26 40 19 62 125 44 991 70 61 258 47 280 134 127...
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1. Figure 1 is the surface weather map for 6Z 31 October 2020. There was only one significant red L shown within a closed, circular 992-mb isobar, with the lowest pressure situated along the Manitoba-Saskatchewan border in Canada. To the south of the lowest pressure, through the state of North Dakota, a purple ______ front extended generally southward.


a. warm

b. cold

c. stationary

d. occluded


1.png2. The red frontal boundary extending from the terminus of your answer from #1 extends southeastward through South Dakota and Nebraska is identified as a ______ front. The halfcircles visible along one side of this front faces east, indicating that this boundary is moving toward the ______.


a. cold ... west

b. cold ... south

c. warm ... south

d. warm ... east


3. The wind pattern, as seen from above, in the states and provinces surrounding the lowpressure area exhibited a generally ______ flow, as expected. a. clockwise and outward b. counterclockwise and inward c. clockwise and inward d. counterclockwise and outward


4. Examine the wind directions in central Nebraska and Kansas. Their respective wind directions show winds generally from a ______ direction. This is consistent with the warm sector of the classic mid-latitude cyclone.


a. southerly

b. westerly

c. northerly

d. easterly


5. Now compare surface moisture conditions around the cyclone. Dewpoints for stations in Nebraska and Kansas are generally ______ than those in Iowa and Minnesota (on the other side of the boundary identified from your answer in #2).


a. higher

b. lower

c. the same as


6. The surface air in Kansas and Nebraska was ______ than the air in Iowa and Minnesota.


a. less humid

b. more humid


2.png

Figure 2 is the 300-mb upper-air map for 00Z 31 October 2020, six hours prior to Figure 1 surface map. Imagine (or draw) a bold L on the Figure 2 at the location where the surface 992- mb low pressure in Figure 1 was shown. Wind directions at 300 mb over surface weather map features are often a good indicator of the movements of those systems over the next day or so.


7. Based on the wind directions at 300 mb, as inferred by the station plots and contour lines for the L you marked (e.g., Manitoba-Saskatchewan border), the system would be expected to move generally toward the ______ over the next day.


a. east

b. north

c. west

d. south


Figure 3 is the 300-mb upper-air map for 12Z 31 October 2020, six hours after Figure 1 surface map. Imagine (or draw) a bold L on the Figure 3 at the location where the surface 992-mb Low pressure in Figure 1 was shown. The most significant change from Figure 2 to Figure 3 is that winds at this level have changed in both direction and speed upstream proximate to the surface low pressure



3.png8. Comparing the wind speeds at the 300-mb level from 00Z (Figure 2) to 12Z (Figure 3) over the states of North and South Dakota, it can be noted that winds have ______ in speed and have a slightly more ______ direction in Figure 3. The reason for this change is the approach of an upper-level trough from the west which has amplified slightly.


a. decreased ... easterly

b. decreased ... northerly

c. increased ... northerly

d. increased ... southerly


Figure 4 is a surface weather map for 00Z 1 November 2020, 18 hrs after Figure 1 and 12 hrs after Figure 3. It is now evident from Figure 4 how the upper-level winds influenced both the intensity and movement of the surface cyclone that you identified in Figure 1. 





4.png9. The boldface lowest pressure value identified next to the cyclone in Canada in Figure 4 was noted at ______ mb, which was ______ than in Figure 1, indicating that the cyclone has become more intense.


a. 891 ... lower

b. 991 ... lower

c. 999 ... higher

d. 1001 ... higher


10. The Canadian cyclone in Figure 4 has shifted to the east since Figure 1 as a result of upstream winds aloft. However, given your answer to #8, the surface cyclone has also shifted slightly ______ as well.


a. northward

b. westward

c. southward


11. Generally, the Figure 1 Manitoba-Saskatchewan low center ______ during the 18 hrs between Figure 1 and Figure 4, as expected from the 300-mb wind directions aloft as depicted in Figure 2 and 3.

a. did move

b. did not move


12. Examine the surface weather station situated along the Montana-North Dakota border and compare the weather conditions in Figure 1 to Figure 4. The temperature and dewpoint at this station has become ______ by the time of Figure 4. This was indicative of the passing front. Winds at this station slightly changed direction in the later time period, as the observation station wound up being further behind the departing low pressure system.


a. warmer and more humid

b. cooler and less humid


13. By Figure 4, Chicago, IL found itself now in the warm sector of the cyclone. This warm sector was much more constrained in Figure 4 than in Figure 1. The surface observations for Chicago however, do validate its positioning in this unique region of the cyclone by the fact that temperatures have ______ from Figure 1 to the Figure 4 by ______ °F. For reference, the temperature at Chicago was 40°F in Figure 1.


a. decreased ... 10

b. decreased ... 2

c. increased ... 4

d. increased ... 14


14. The Manitoba-Saskatchewan Low in Figure 1 had moved hundreds of miles during the 18 hrs between Figure 1 and Figure 4, with effects evident in the northern U.S. The trailing cold fronts in Figure 4 extended from the Great Lakes into the front range of the Rocky Mountains. The wind directions at stations in Kansas, Nebraska and eastern Colorado in Figure 4 have essentially ______ as this cold front(s) swept across the Plains.


a. reversed

b. remained the same


15. By the time of Figure 4, there is evidence that the cyclone was nearing the end of its life cycle. What evidence can you find on Figure 4 that indicates that the cyclone is in the later stages of its evolution?


a. The purple occluded front near the central Low became more distended and pinched off even more of the warm-sector.

b. Precipitation becomes more intense with more precipitation overall.

c. The spacing of the isobars became much greater, with slower wind speeds.


The NWS National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) also creates surface maps for North America, the continental U.S., Alaska, and Hawai'i, in either black and white or color, with or without fronts, and/or with satellite or radar data. These maps can be found from the Weather Studies Maps & Links, Surface Maps, "NWS Surface Analysis." One- and seven-day loops of fronts can also be created showing the progression of surface weather features. The NWS Unified Surface Analysis will even display (and animate) mid-latitude cyclones and Highs across most of the Northern Hemisphere. Take note of these maps as intense cyclones form and move across the country with the onset of the winter season.


The AMS Real Time U.S. Weather Data is a good source for a variety of surface, upper level, and satellite maps at 00Z, 12Z, and 18Z. It can be found from the Weather Studies Maps & Links, AMS RealTime Weather Maps Central, "Real-Time Surface, Radar, Satellite & Upper Air Maps." Follow along on any given day to analyze weather systems across the country.

Image transcriptions

CWS 10 - 2 -FL20 PO39 28.244 1020 27 21 578 12 16 132 8 178 18 HY 12 14 184 25 57 26H 41 46 232 2 132 26 40 19 62 125 44 991 70 61 258 47 280 134 127 441098 43 019 394 1028 826 H7 43 36 36 270 45 1621 50 320 18 144 244 48 19 091 140 b +82 v +2 159 43 34 229 54 23 34 3:H 34 250 50 185 +1.6 37 218 39 295 96 022 27 1024+219 217 16 185 1016 42 39 32 1031 32 44 277 181 128 200 161 46 71 175 -+10 65 15 H 41 1021 32 41 360 46 41/ 67 62 68 1 101325 1027 38 1020 58 142 45 41 H 45 41 410 56 1016 41 49 102352 48 224 80 39 0 45-54 6 74 70 150 - +10 41 H 44 30 65 63 70 53 1012 54 72 215 206 192 8600Z SURFACE ANALYSIS 1020 44 57 ISSUED 0730Z SAT OCT 31 2020 10 COLLABORATING CENTERS: WPC, NHC, OPC (73 180 275 Figure 1. NCEP weather map analyzed with isobars and data for 6Z 31 OCT 2020. [Weather Prediction Center (WPC) Archive]

13 -51 7-50 63 48 143 54 69 50 145 614-43 WAP 75 -41 62 70 -55 -52 55 -48 -54 -73 1140 1-40 -39 -55 125 5 -39 72 -77 -65 1295 139 -74 42 -59 -39 -38 -47 139 200 --59 60 38 -59 38 -76 -36 -53 -39 175 68 - 38 -36 150 -52 35 35 $74 $57 -66 -33 125 FE -73 -3p 10 NOAA 32 133 -32 National Weather Service Storm Prediction Center 201031/0000 300 MB UA OBS, ISOTACHS, STREAMLINES, DIVERGENCE Figure 2. Analyzed NCEP weather map with streamlines, isotachs (lines of equal wind speed), and 300-mb rawinsonde data for 00Z 31 OCT 2020. [Storm Prediction Center (SPC) Surface and Upper Air Map Archive]

Figure 3 is the 300-mb upper-air map for 12Z 31 October 2020, six hours after Figure 1 surface map. Imagine (or draw) a bold L on the Figure 3 at the location where the surface 992-mb Low pressure in Figure I was shown. The most significant change from Figure 2 to Figure 3 is that low pressure. winds at this level have changed in both direction and speed upstream proximate to the surface 63 1 537 -54 621\ -39 149 -51 56 81 50 46 -64 -45 441 13 4AGE 100 243 -43 414 50 ALL -57 +42 -42 67 - 60 -6171 597 -61 -41 -55 -40 140 41 64 -39 -40 -584 -60 -51 2 25 -68 1 9 -55 -39 59 1200 746 -37 45 175 -38 51 4127 538 38 -36 -36- -54 150% -39 -40 50 43 125 -33 -50 44 10 NOAA -51 National Weather Service Storm Prediction Center 201031/1200 300 MB UA OBS, ISOTACHS, STREAMLINES, DIVERGENCE Figure 3. Analyzed NCEP weather map with streamlines, isotachs, and 300-mb rawinsonde data for 12Z 31 October 2020. [Storm Prediction Center (SPC) Surface and Upper Air Map Archive]

Figure 4 is a surface weather map for 00Z 1 November 2020, 18 hrs after Figure 1 and 12 hrs after Figure 3. It is now evident from Figure 4 how the upper-level winds influenced both the intensity and movement of the surface cyclone that you identified in Figure 1. *9 218 60 P3 23 260 392 23 220 32001 85 16 991 36 1023 896 28 25 21 $301 60 254 51% 1829 68 o2b 42 1093 45 269 44 326 1019 41 16 So iL 56 zaza 3 275 H 236 103TH 1028 23 19 341 .27 1931 27 1032 56 ! 261 1015 17016 120 54 59 52 678 183 16 1025 1022, 1930 -H 27 67 56 236 46 14 1024 74 64 90 23 62 69 1020 59 74244 70 54 1017 509 48 L -+20 101675 1022 71 / 1016 62 65 223 71 47 63 61-69 7237 213 78 218 68 172 6 6020 70 186 67 75 199 2510 39 63 '803 188 81 190 7204/ 724 - 2 81 158 57 841738 42 90OOZ SURFACE ANALYSIS 55 75 198 184 SUN NOV 01 2020 59 1020 5 199 59 74 ISSUED: 01252 SUN NOV 01 2020 BY WPC ANALYST GALLINA COLLABORATING CENTERS: WPC, NHC, OPC 45 HAVE 25 Figure 4. NCEP weather map analyzed with isobars and data for OZ 1 NOV 2020. [Weather Prediction Center (WPC) Archive]

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