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1. What are the epidemiological characteristics of infection with avian and/or swine flu as compared to yearly flu?
What about these viruses causes such public concern?
2. How does the immune response to yearly flu differ from that of the avian flu? How does this relate to the
characteristics of infection with avian flu?
3. HIN1 influenza has been the cause of four pandemics in recent history: 1918, 1957, 1968, and 2009. How is it
possible to have multiple HIN1 pandemics in the same century?
4. What possible outcomes might happen if swine flu (HIN1) and avian flu (H5N1) reassorted?
5. Would it be efficient to vaccinate against yearly swine and avian flu at the same time? Why or why not?
6. What is the significance of a virus that can directly infect humans from chickens? Why do you think that the
1997 threat did not turn into a pandemic?

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