Choose the best answer 1.Which are beta-lactam antibiotics? none of the other answeres are beta-lactum antibiotics erythromycin and azithromycin
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Choose the best answer1.    Which are beta-lactam antibiotics?

none of the other answeres are beta-lactum antibiotics


erythromycin and azithromycin

sulfonamide and trimethoprim

streptomycin and neomycin

pencillin and cephalosporin.


2. In which phase of the bacterial growth curve is the generation time the shortest?

Group of answer choices


log/exponential growth phase


optimum phase


decline phase


stationary phase


lag phase


3.Which is an indirect method of estimating microbial growth?

Group of answer choices



Spectrophotometer


Microscopic cell count


Membrane filtration


Coulter counter Serial dilution and viable plate count



4. Which best describes why extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are important?

Group of answer choices



They are components of a biofilm secreted by the microbes present.


none of the other answers is correct


They are components of a biofilm secreted by the host cells as an immune response to wall off the pathogens.


They are chemicals produced as part of the immune response to microbial invasion.


They are secreted by free-living bacteria as virulence factors to allow them to penetrate the bloodstream.


5. All are true about quorum sensing except:

Group of answer choices



Microbes can change enzyme production, cell shape and leads to biofilm formation.


Is defined as microbes responding to density of nearby microbes.


Genes can be turned on or off by autoinducers


Involves cells secreting autoinducers that bind to receptors.

 


All of the other answers about quorum sensing are true.


6. Which best describes how a microaerophile would grow in a thioglycolate (FTM) tube culture?

Group of answer choices



throughout the medium evenly distributed


throughout the medium but more growth at the top


only grows a short distance below the top of the medium, but not at the top


at the bottom of the medium only, with no growth in the middle or top


near and at the top of the medium, with no growth at the bottom


7. Which is the most common category of bacteria?

Group of answer choices



alkalinophiles


acidophiles


thermophiles


capnophiles


mesophiles


8. Placing thermophile organisms at 37oC is:

Group of answer choices



bactericidal


decontaminating


sterilization


bacteriostatic


none of the other answers is correct


9. All happen higher than the maximum growth temperature of a microorganism except:

 

Group of answer choices



All of the other answers happen higher than the maximum growth temperature.

 

Proteins become denatured.


Hydrogen bonds break.


Lipids become too fluid.


10. A medium which contains substances whose exact chemical composition is known is called 

Group of answer choices



selective


complex/nonsynthetic


differential


synthetic


enriched


11. What method of handling microbes prevents infection or contamination?

Group of answer choices



none of the methods prevent infection of tissues


septic technique


drug resistance technique


microbial technique


aseptic technique


12. Which would be used to achieve sterility?

Group of answer choices



fungicide


sporicide


virucide


bactericide


germicide


13. All affect how successful disinfection of an object will be except:

Group of answer choices



the type of microbe present


all of the other answers affect disinfection


the microbial load


the concentration of agent and time applied


the pH


14. The presence of saliva, blood, and feces can inhibit an agent from killing a culture of bacteria.

Group of answer choices



True


False


15. The lowest temperature required to kill a suspension of bacteria in 10 min is:

Group of answer choices



The cardinal temperature


The thermal death point


The therapeutic index


40°C


The thermal death time


16. When would you use an oven for microbial control?

Group of answer choices



to sterilize used syringes and dressings


to sterilize glassware, powders or oils


for drinking water


for food preservation


17. This type of radiation can be sporocidal:

Group of answer choices



X-rays only


X-rays and ultraviolet radiation only


gamma rays only


X-rays, gamma rays, and ultraviolet radiation all can be sporocidal.


ultraviolet radiation only




      


       


       



         


     


Matching

Group of answer choices





        18.    [ Choose ] Heavy metal that toxic to humans in minute doses, Halogen used to disinfect swimming pools, Kils microbes by producing oxidizing free radicals, Gaseous chemosterilant used in a chemiclave, Triclosan is a type found in handsoaps and can be an endrocrine disruptor.

         

ethylene oxide

         

phenolics

         

chlorine

         

mercury

         

hydrogen peroxide

      


         

19. Which is effective against spores?

Group of answer choices



alcohol


soaps


heavy metal silver


quaternary ammonium compounds


formaldehyde


20. Who is credited with first finding a naturally occurring antimicrobial agent (Penicillin)?

Group of answer choices



Edward Jenner


Alexander Fleming


Joseph Lister


Paul Ehrlich


Dorothy Hodgkin


 21. Bacillus licheniformis secretes a compound that inhibits the growth of other bacteria. This is an example of a(n):

Group of answer choices



broad spectrum drug


narrow spectrum drug


semisynthetic antimicrobial


antibiotic


synthetic drug


22. Broad spectrum drugs that disrupt the body's normal balance of microbiota can cause:

Group of answer choices



nephrotoxicity


drug toxicity


allergic reactions


All of the other answers are correct


superinfections


23. Which molecule looks like a substrate, sits in the active site, and is a competitive inhibitor of enzymes?

Group of answer choices



synergistic effect


protease inhibitors


resistance (R) factor


ergosterol


antimetabolites


24. Which antimicrobial agent inhibits DNA gyrase?

Group of answer choices



penicillin


fluoroquinolone


trimethoprim


bacitracin


quinine



25. Which antihelminth drug is used to treat tapeworms, liver flukes and Schistomoma blood

flukes and induces calcium influx resulting in paralysis?

Group of answer choices



imidazoles


artemisinin


benzimidazoles


praziquantel


quinolones


26. Which neuraminidase inhibitor is commonly used to inhibit the avian flu virus?

Group of answer choices



quinolines


protease inhibitors


Tamiflu (oseltamivir)


nucleoside analogs


AZT (azidothymine)


 27. Drug resistance is:

Group of answer choices



none of the other answers is correct


a non- adaptive response where microbes mutate to become sensitive to the drug


a response where the drug causes chromosomal changes in the microbe.


a response where microbes exhibit a larger zone of inhibition


a response where the population contains increasing numbers of microbes that are not killed by a drug.



28. Which about microbial drug resistance is correct?

Group of answer choices



Discontinuing an antibiotic as soon as you feel better may prevent resistance.



Antimicrobials used in the meat and poultry industry reduce resistance.


All of the other answers are correct.


Microbes in nature evolve to overcome antibiotics.


Overuse of antibiotics inhibits microbial resistance.





29. Pathogen A is more resistant to an tetracycline disc on a Kirby-Bauer diffusion susceptibility plate compared to pathogen B. Pathogen A will have a(n) ___________ zone of inhibition compared to pathogen B.

Group of answer choices



equal


smaller


larger 

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