Directions: Design a Live attenuated vaccine to limit thepathogenicityof Clostridium perfringens .You may decide that removing 1 virulence factor is...
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Directions: Example Live Attenuated Vaccine Question:Example Background and Question Clostridium perfringens 

Design a Live attenuated vaccine to limit the pathogenicity of Clostridium perfringens. You may decide that removing 1 virulence factor is sufficient, you may also decide that removing more than 1 virulence factor is necessary. Justify your answer. There is more than one correct answer; the key is justifying the logic and targeting virulence factors that are most significant in causing disease/mortality.

is the causative agent behind gas gangrene. A significant proportion of the deaths due to gas gangrene are related to the bacterial toxin released causing severe necrosis at the site of infection. The characteristic presentation of this disease is a patient reporting intense pain out of proportion to the wound size. The virulence factors for Clostridium perfringens include: spores, collagenase, alpha toxin, Hyaluronidase acid capsule, and fimbriae.  


Example Answer: Oliphant's proprietary gas gangrene vaccine would require that researchers remove the ability of Clostridium perfringens to make collagenase, which is responsible for digesting tissues, remove the alpha toxin which causes alpha hemolysis of red blood cells, and the hyaluronidase acid capsule which allows this bacteria to go undetected by the immune system. Oliphant's live attenuated vaccine would not remove fimbriae, which is necessary for bacterial attachment so that our immune cells can process the bacteria and develop memory cells and antibodies . The vaccine would also leave the bacterial endospores in-tact since these are a vital component of Bacillus and Clostridium bacterial life-cycles.

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