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CSC305: Data Communications and Networks
Lab 1: Small Internetworks
An Introduction to RIVERBED MODELER Simulation tool
In this lab, you will be introduced to the network simulation tool RIVERBED MODELER. To
familiarize yourself with this tool follow the steps of this introductory lab titled “Small
Internetworks” and run the program
The academic version of this tool is free and can be downloaded from the Internet by the
visiting the RIVERBED MODELER Academic edition Website. Note that you should register first
to be able to download the software. You can also download it from Blackboard and activated
using my credentials also available on Blackboard. 1- Change the simulation duration from 0.5hour to 8hrs. Rerun your simulation and answer
the following two questions:
- Will the server be able to handle the additional load of the added networks? Analyze
the CPU utilization.
- Will the total delay across the network be acceptable once the new networks are
2- Change the application configuration to Heavy Database in both scenarios and analyze
the performance of both networks considering the three statistics: Ethernet load,
Ethernet delay, and a third statistic of your choice.
3- Create a third scenario containing 4 more networks (2 in the third floor, 1 in fourth floor
and 1 in the fith floor) and check the performance of the whole network. The new four
networks are identical to the first network except that the number of stations should be 4
for each. Use Subnets to create the new networks. You need to upgrade the connecting
device to be able to add more networks. Use “Topology>Verify Links …” to verify the
connectivity of your topology
Prepare a report in which you should include the answers to the questions and the analysis
of your results. You should include the graphs showing the comparison of the three scenarios:
one floor, two floors, and five floors, considering the three statistics: Ethernet load, Ethernet
delay, and a third statistic of your choice. Discuss the results you obtained and compare them
with your expectations. Mention any anomalies or unexplained behaviors.
What you need to submit is:
- Report with graphs, discussions, and answers to the questions
- All your project files generated by Riverbed MODELER.
The work can be done individually or in teams of MAXIMUM two students. This Lab1
counts for 5 marks.
Deadline: You should upload your work using Blackboard on time before September 24th,
23:59 (STRICT DEADLINE). Any late submission will be penalized (-0.25 mark per day). CSC305 Communications and Networks (Fall 2018) Introduction Introduction
The Final Network Small Internetworks
In this lesson, you will learn how IT Guru can model
organizational scaling by using the tool to model a
real-world “what if” problem. You will learn how to use
IT Guru features to build and analyze network models.
In this lesson, you will
• Build a network quickly
First floor • Collect statistics about network performance
• Analyze these statistics
In this lesson, you use the Project Editor to build a
topology of a small internetwork, choose statistics to
collect, run a simulation, and analyze the results. Planned expansion In this lesson, you plan for the expansion of a small
company’s intranet. Currently, the company has a star
topology network on the first floor of its office building
and plans to add an additional star topology network
on another floor. You will build and test this “what-if”
scenario to ensure that the load added by the second
network will not cause the network to fail. 1 2 Getting Started Getting Started To use the Startup Wizard to set up a new scenario, do
the following: Getting Started
When creating a new network model, you must first
create a new project and scenario. A project is a
group of related scenarios that each explore a different
aspect of the network. Projects can contain multiple
scenarios. 1 If IT Guru is not already running, start it.
2 Select File > New....
3 Select Project from the pull-down menu and click OK. After you create a new project, you use the Startup
Wizard to set up a new scenario. The options in the
Wizard let you 4 Name the project and scenario, as follows: • Define the initial topology of the network 4.1 Name the project <initials>_Sm_Int • Define the scale and size of the network Include your initials in the project name to
distinguish it from other versions of this
project. • Select a background map for the network.
• Associate an object palette with the scenario 4.2 Name the scenario first_floor. Startup Wizard automatically appears each time you
create a new project. The Startup Wizard allows you to
define certain aspects of the network environment. 4.3 Click OK. ➥ The Startup Wizard opens.
5 Enter the values shown in the following table in the dialog boxes of the Startup Wizard: 3 4 Getting Started
Values to Enter in the Startup Wizard
Dialog Box Name Value 1. Initial Topology Select the default value:
Create Empty Scenario. 2. Choose Network Scale Select Office. Check the
Use Metric Units box. 3. Specify Size Select the default size:
100 m x 100 m 4. Select Technologies Include the Sm_Int_Model_List
model family. 5. Review Creating the Network Creating the Network
Network models are created in the Project Editor using
nodes and links from the object palette.
Node - A representation of a real-world network object
that can transmit and receive information.
Nodes Check values, then click OK. ➥ A workspace of the size you specified is
created. The object palette you specified opens
in a separate window.
Link - A communication medium that connects nodes
to one another. Links can represent electrical or fiber
A Link These objects are found in the object palette, a dialog
box that contains graphical representations of node
and link models. 5 6 Creating the Network Creating the Network Specify the node models and link models in the
network. Models follow this naming scheme: You can use any of three methods to create a network
topology, or a combination of all three. One method is
to import the topology (discussed in a later lesson).
Another is to place individual nodes from the object
palette into the workspace. The third method is to use
Rapid Configuration. <protocol1>_..._<protocoln>_<function>_<mod>
• <protocol> specifies the specific protocol(s)
supported by the model Rapid Configuration creates a network in one action
after you select a network configuration, the types of
nodes within the network, and the types of links that
connect the nodes. • <function> is an abbreviation of the general
function of the model
• <mod> indicates the level of derivation of the
model To create the first-floor network using Rapid
Configuration: For example: 1 Select Topology > Rapid Configuration. ethernet2_bridge_int 2 Select Star from the drop-down menu of available configurations, then click OK....
specifies the intermediate (int) derivation of a 2-port
Ethernet (ethernet2) bridge (bridge). Available Configurations Pop-up Menu Vendor models have an additional prefix that specifies
the vendor and the vendor product number for that
particular network object. 7 8 Creating the Network For example, the 3Com switch used in this lesson is
named: Creating the Network Specify where the new network will be placed:
1 Set the X center and Y center to 25. 3C_SSII_1100_3300_4s_ae52_e48_ge3 2 Set the Radius to 20.
Rapid Configuration Dialog Box This node is a stack of two 3Com SuperStack II 1100
and two Superstack II 3300 chassis
(3C_SSII_1100_3300) with four slots (4s), 52
auto-sensing Ethernet ports (ae52), 48 Ethernet ports
(e48), and 3 Gigabit Ethernet ports (ge3).
To specify the nodes and links to use to build the
1 Set the Center Node Model to 3C_SSII_1100_3300_4s_ae52_e48_ge3. This is
a 3Com switch. 3 Click OK. 2 Set the Periphery Node Model to ➥ The network is drawn in the Project Editor: Sm_Int_wkstn, and change the Number of
periphery nodes to 30. This provides 30 Ethernet
workstations as the peripheral nodes.
3 Set the Link Model to 10BaseT. 9 10 Creating the Network
The First Floor Network Creating the Network By default, you can create additional instances of
the same object by left-clicking after the initial
“drag-and-drop” from the palette.
3 Because you do not need additional copies of this model, right-click to turn off node creation. Now that the general network topology has been built,
you need to add a server. You will use the second
method of creating network objects: dragging them
from the object palette into the workspace.
1 If it is not already open, open the object palette by clicking on the
Object Palette action button.
2 Find the Sm_Int_server object in the palette and drag it into the workspace.
You will not find this exact server model on other
object palettes because we created it with the
correct configuration for this tutorial.
11 12 Creating the Network You also need to connect the server to the star
network. Creating the Network You need only drag the objects into your network.
Doing so means that the traffic caused by workstations
accessing a database at a low rate will be modeled. 1 Find the 10BaseT link object in the palette and
1 Find the Sm_Application_Config object in the click on it. palette and drag it into the workspace
2 Click on the server object, then click on the switch object in the center of the star. 2 Right-click to turn off object creation. ➥ A link is drawn, connecting the two objects. 3 Find the Sm_Profile_Config object in the palette, drag it into the workspace, and right-click. 3 Right-click to turn off link creation. 4 Close the object palette. Finally, you need to add configuration objects to
specify the application traffic that will exist on the
network. Configuring the application definition and
profile definition objects can be complicated, so you do
not have to do these tasks right now. For this tutorial,
we included, on the object palette:
• an application definition object with the default
configurations of the standard applications, and
• a profile definition object with a profile that models
light database access 13 14 The following steps should be done after
page 15 and before starting collecting
statistics as outlined in page 16. Right-click on the object “Application
definition”, select “edit attributes”, and
change the setting as shown on the figure
below: Creating the Network The network is now built and should look similar to the
following figure. Collecting Statistics Collecting Statistics The Finished First Floor Network You can collect statistics from individual nodes in your
network (object statistics) or from the entire network
Now that you have created the network, you should
decide which statistics you need to collect to answer
the questions presented earlier in this lesson:
• Will the server be able to handle the additional
load of the second network?
• Will the total delay across the network be
acceptable once the second network is installed?
To answer these questions, you need a snapshot of
current performance for comparison. To get this
baseline, you will collect one object statistic, Server
Load, and one global statistic, Ethernet Delay. You are now ready to begin collecting statistics. 15 16 Collecting Statistics Collecting Statistics
Choose Results Dialog Box Server load is a key statistic that reflects the
performance of the entire network. To collect statistics
related to the server’s load, do the following steps:
1 Right-click on the server node (node_31) and select Choose Individual Statistics from the
server’s Object pop-up menu.
➥ The Choose Results dialog box for node_31
The Choose Results dialog box hierarchically
organizes the statistics you may collect. To collect
the Ethernet load on the server:
2 Click the plus sign next to Ethernet in the Choose Results dialog box to expand the Ethernet statistic
hierarchy. 3 Click the checkbox next to Load (bits/sec) to enable collection for that statistic.
4 Click OK to close the dialog box. 17 18 Collecting Statistics Global statistics can be used to gather information
about the network as a whole. For example, you can
find out the delay for the entire network by collecting
the global Delay statistic: Collecting Statistics 4 Click the checkbox next to Delay (sec) to enable data collection.
5 Click OK to close the Choose Results dialog box. 1 Right-click in the workspace (but not on an object) It is good to get into the habit of saving your project
every so often. To save the project: and select Choose Individual Statistics from the
Workspace pop-up menu.
Global Statistic Chosen 1 Choose File > Save, then click OK (the project already has a name, so you don’t need to rename
Now that you have specified which statistics to collect
and saved the project, you are almost ready to run
First, though, verify that your repositories preference
is set. Repositories contain user-defined components
such as process models and pipeline stages that are
saved so that simulations will take less time to begin
2 Expand the Global Statistics hierarchy. 1 Choose Edit > Preferences. 3 Expand the Ethernet hierarchy. 2 Type repositories in the Find field and click on the Find button. 19 20 Collecting Statistics 3 If the value for repositories is not stdmod, click Collecting Statistics While the simulation runs, a dialog box appears
showing the simulation’s progress. on the field and enter stdmod in the dialog box. Simulation Sequence Dialog Box 4 Click OK to close the repositories and Elapsed Time: Number of seconds the simulation has run Preferences dialog boxes
To run a simulation:
1 Select Simulation > Configure Discrete Event Simulation….
You can also open the Configure Discrete
Event Simulation dialog box by clicking
on the configure/run simulation action
2 Type 0.5 in the Duration: field to simulate one-half hour of network activity. Simulated Time: Minutes of network time Configure Discrete Event Simulation Dialog Box The dialog box above shows that, in 5 seconds of
elapsed (actual) time, IT Guru has simulated 15
minutes and 19 seconds of network time. The
entire simulation should take less than one minute
to complete—the elapsed time varies according
to the speed of your computer.
4 When the simulation finishes, the contents of the 3 Click the Run button to begin the simulation. Messages tab appears. Click the Close button in
the Simulation Sequence dialog box.
21 22 Collecting Statistics 5 If your simulation does not complete, if no results Viewing Results Viewing Results were collected, or if the results vary significantly
from those shown, you will have to troubleshoot
your simulation. See "Troubleshooting Tutorial
Simulations". You can view results graphically in the Project Editor by
selecting View Results from the Workspace pop-up
After your simulation has executed, you will want to
see the information collected for each statistic. There
are several ways to view results; in this lesson you will
use the View Results option in the Workspace pop-up
You will learn different ways to view results in later
To view the server Ethernet load for the simulation:
1 Right-click on the server node (node_31) choose View Results from the server’s Object pop-up
➥ The node’s View Results dialog box opens.
2 Expand the Office network.node_31 > Ethernet hierarchy.
3 Click on the checkbox next to Load (bits/sec) to indicate that you want to view that result.
23 24 Viewing Results 4 Click the Show button in the View Results dialog Viewing Results Note that at its peak, the load on the server is well
below 6,000 bits/second. You will need this baseline
for comparison after you add the second network. box.
➥ The graph of the server load appears in the
Project Editor, as shown in the following figure. When you finish viewing the server load graph, close
this dialog box and the View Results dialog box. (If the
system prompts you, choose to delete the graph
panel.) The graph of the server load should resemble the
following graph. Your results may differ slightly due to
differences in node placement and link length, but the
general trends should be consistent. You also should look at the Global Ethernet Delay on
the network. To view this statistic: Server Load Graph 1 Right-click in the workspace, then select View Results from the pop-up menu.
2 Check the box next to Global Statistics > Ethernet > Delay, then click the Show button to
view the Ethernet delay for the whole network.
unit of measure
on this axis is
shown in the
statistic in the
dialog box Simulation time, in minutes 25 26 Viewing Results
Viewing Ethernet Delay for the Whole Network Viewing Results
Ethernet Delay Graph Seconds Simulation time, in minutes ➥ The Ethernet delay graph appears in the
Project Editor.The graph should resemble the
following figure. Note that after the network reaches steady state the
maximum delay is around 0.4 milliseconds.
When you are finished viewing the graph, close it and
the View Results dialog box. 27 28 Expanding the Network Expanding the Network The second-floor segment will resemble the first-floor
segment, but will not have a server of its own. To build
the new segment: Expanding the Network
You have created a baseline network and gathered
statistics about it. Now you are ready to expand the
network and verify that it still operates sufficiently well
with the additional load. 1 Select Topology > Rapid Configuration.
2 Choose Star for the topology and click OK... When performing a “what-if” comparison, it is
convenient to store the baseline network as one
scenario and create the experimental network as a
different scenario. You will duplicate the existing
scenario and make changes to it instead of building
the new topology from the beginning. 3 Complete the Rapid Configuration dialog box with these values:
— Center Node Model:
— Periphery Node Model: Sm_Int_wkstn
— Number: 15 To duplicate a scenario: — Link model: 10BaseT
1 Choose Scenarios > Duplicate Scenario... — X: 75, Y: 62.5, Radius: 20 2 Enter expansion as the name for the new Rapid Configuration Dialog Box scenario.
3 Click OK. ➥ The scenario, with all the nodes, links,
statistics, and the simulation configuration, is
duplicated and named expansion. 29 30 Expanding the Network 4 Click OK to create the network. Expanding the Network The final network should look like this:
The Final Network Join the two networks:
1 If it is not already open, click the action button to open the object palette.
2 Drag the Cisco 2514 router icon into the workspace between the two networks. Right-click
to turn off node creation.
3 Click on the 10BaseT link icon in the object palette.
4 Create 10BaseT links between the Cisco router (node_50) and the 3Com switches at the center
of each star.
5 Right-click to turn off link creation.
6 Close the object palette. To run the expansion scenario: 7 Select File > Save. 1 Select Simulation > Configure Discrete Event Simulation….
2 Verify that the Duration is set to 0.5 hours.
31 32 Expanding the Network 3 Click the Run button to begin the simulation. Comparing Results Comparing Results Simulation Sequence Dialog Box, Simulation Speed Tab Selected To answer the questions posed about the addition of a
second network to the existing LAN, you need to
compare the results from both of the simulations you
You will use the Compare Results menu item in the
Object and Workspace pop-up menus to combine
statistics from different scenarios in the same graph.
To look at the server load from both scenarios at once:
1 Right-click on the server node (node_31) to bring up its Object pop-up menu.
2 Choose Compare Results (you can do this from either scenario in the project).
➥ A View Results dialog box appears containing
a hierarchical representation of statistics
collected for the server node. ➥ As before, a window appears showing the
simulation’s progress. When the Simulation
Speed tab is selected, an animated graph
shows both the current and average speed in
events per second. If your results differ radically from those shown in the
following figures, you will have to troubleshoot your
simulation. See "Troubleshooting Tutorial Simulations". 4 When the simulation is done, close the Simulation Sequence dialog box. If you had problems, see
"Troubleshooting Tutorial Simulations".
33 34 Comparing Results When comparing results, choosing a statistic in one
scenario produces a graph showing the value of that
statistic in all scenarios. To view the results: Comparing Results The following graph is the time average of the Ethernet
load between the baseline (first_floor) scenario and
the expansion scenario. You will learn how to create a
graph of the time average in the next lesson. 1 Select the Office Network.node_31 > Ethernet Time-averaged Server Load Compared > Load (bits/sec) statistic and click the Show
button. Your results should resemble those in the
following figure (but may not be identical):
Server Load Compared bits/second Note that while the average load for the expansion
scenario is higher (as expected), the load as a whole
appears to be leveling off (that is, not monotonically
increasing), indicating a stable network. Simulation time, in minutes 35 36 Comparing Results The last step is to see how much the network’s delay is
affected by adding a second floor. To compare
Ethernet delay for the two scenarios: Comparing Results Your graph of Ethernet Delay should resemble the
Ethernet Delay Compared 1 Close the graph and the Compare Results dialog box for the server. Seconds 2 Right-click in the workspace, then select Compare Results from the Workspace pop-up
3 Select the Global Statistics > Ethernet > Delay (sec) statistic.
4 Click Show to display the graph. ➥ The graph of the Global Ethernet Delay
Simulation time, in minutes This graph shows that there is no significant change in
Ethernet delay on the network. Although server load
has increased, delay has not.
Select File > Close and save changes before closing. 37 38
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