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<ol><li>Why is the ISO/OSI protocol stack called a reference model? Do you think this will always be

the case?</li><li>How is a network layer protocol different from a transport layer protocol?</li><li>What is a protocol? What is a standard? Must all protocols be standards? Explain. Are all standards protocols? Explain.</li><li>Internet protocol standards are devised through the efforts of thousands of people all over the world regardless of their having any background in data communications. On the other hand, proprietary protocols are created by a much smaller group of people, all of whom are directly or indirectly working for the same employer.</li><li>What advantages and disadvantages do you think are offered by each approach? Which would produce a better product? Which would produce a product more quickly?</li><li>Locate a current reference that lists the important protocols that are members of the TCP/IP protocol suite. Explain how each protocol contributes to the operation and use of the Internet.</li><li>Virtualization is a concept that has taken on major importance in the early 21<sup>st</sup> Century. Explain what is meant by virtualization</li></ol>

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