Question
Answered step-by-step

QUESTION 1Which neurotransmitter is considered the major excitatory neurotransmitter?A.GlycineB.GABAC.GlutamateD.

Serotonin



QUESTION 2

  1. Glia cells play a supportive role to the neuron. A few of the functions of the glial cells include providing nutrition, maintaining homeostasis, stabilizing synapses, and myelinating axons. The glial cells are categorized as microglia and macroglia. Of these two cell types, which one plays an active and critical role in glutamatergic neurotransmission by providing a co-agonist required for glutamate receptor function?

A.

microglial

B.

macroglial



QUESTION 3

  1. Neurotransmitters are defined by four essential characteristics. These are:

A.

Neurotransmitters are synthesized within presynaptic neurons.

B.

Depolarization of a neuron results in the release of a neurotransmitter, which exerts a multitude of actions on the postsynaptic neuron.

FC.

Their action on postsynaptic neurons can be replicated by administering a drug that mimics the activity of the endogenous neurotransmitter.

D.

Their action in the synaptic cleft is terminated by a specific action.

E.

A, C, and D only



QUESTION 4

  1. Neurotransmission is unidirectional insofar as chemical and electrical conduction is concerned within the individual neuron. Of the following descriptions, which best characterizes the order of neurotransmitter/receptor interaction that results in an electrical signal impulse and the release of another neurotransmitter for interaction in the synaptic cleft (signal conduction through a neuron)?

A.

Cell body, dendrites, Axon, Axon terminals

B.

Dendrites, Axon, Cell body, Axon, Axon terminals

C.

Dendrites, Cell body, Axon, Axon terminals

D.

Axon terminals, Axon, Cell body, Dendrites



QUESTION 5

  1. Motivation is a component of patient-focused interventions to enhance adherence. Based on the transtheoretical model, readiness to change can fluctuate across five stages. Which stage is represented by the patient who is aware that a problem exists and, while seriously thinking about overcoming it, has not yet committed to a plan of action?

A.

Preparation

B.

Action

C.

Contemplation

D.

Maintenance



QUESTION 6

  1. Upon blocking a Serotonin reuptake pump, what happens in the synaptic cleft and on the post synaptic cell membrane?

A.

The result will be an increase in available Serotonin in the synaptic cleft causing the post synaptic cell to increase the number of Serotonin receptors.

B.

The result will be an increase in the available Serotonin in the synaptic cleft causing the post synaptic neuron to reduce the number of Serotonin receptors.

C.

The result will be an increase in Serotonin in the synaptic cleft resulting in an increase in reuptake pumps on the presynaptic neuron.

D.

The result will be an increase in Serotonin in the synaptic cleft resulting in a decrease in reuptake pumps on the pre-synaptic neuron.



QUESTION 7

  1. G-protein coupled receptors are examples of what type of effector pathway?

A.

Slow effector pathways

B.

Rapid effector pathways

C.

NMDA glutamate receptor pathways

D.

Modulated effector pathways



QUESTION 8

  1. Receptors trigger one of two effector pathways resulting in changes in neuronal activity. These changes will, ultimately, effect gene expression. Which effector pathway is characterized by ion flux through transmitter-activated channels resulting in an altered membrane potential and neuronal activity?

A.

Slow effector pathways

B.

Modulated effector pathways

C.

Rapid effector pathways

D.

NMDA glutamate receptor pathways



  1. Treatment adherence is affected by several different factors. Clinical factors include mood, anxiety, psychosis, and substance misuse. There are also patient factors such as knowledge, attitude, and beliefs; economic and racial/ethnic disparities, and clinical encounters. A patient who presents hopeless, with decreased energy, and poor concentration is affected by which factor?

A.

Substance misuse

B.

Knowledge deficits

C.

Attitude ad belief system

D.

Mood



QUESTION 10

  1. The human brain is subcategorized into four major structures. These structures include the cerebral cortex, brainstem, subcortical structures, and the cerebellum. Of these major categories, which one houses the area of the brain that has been found in some neuropathological studies of patients with schizophrenia to be of smaller size?

A.

Cerebral cortex

B.

Brainstem

C.

Subcortical structures

D.

Cerebellum



QUESTION 11

  1. 1Neurons are classified in several different ways. From the following statements, select which ones are true.

                                  i.The two structural classifications are projection neurons and local inter-neurons.

                                ii.Function classifications are made up of two subcategories: excitatory and inhibitory.

                               iii.Histological classification includes bipolar, unipolar, and multipolar.

                               iv.Classifications using a combination of structural, functional, and neurotransmitter type provide the most robust and useful description.

                                 v.Classification by neurotransmitter kind alone provides the most useful description.

A.

I only

B.

III only

C.

I, II, and V only

D.

I, II, III, IV, and V

E.

I, III, and IV



QUESTION 12

  1. Introducing adherence in facilitating treatment goals is something that would be necessary in a patient who has previously displayed nonadherence patterns.

A.

True

B.

False



QUESTION 13

  1. Of the components of patient-focused interventions to enhance adherence, which component includes the following strategies: adaptive thinking, use of cues, and support?

A.

Motivation

B.

Skills

C.

Logistics

D.

Education



QUESTION 14

  1. Serotonin (5HT) is a neurotransmitter associated with mood, sleep, and psychosis. There are several serotonin receptors all over the human body. A unique aspect of the second generation antipsychotics is their ability to block 5HT2a receptors. What is the effect of this inhibition?

A.

Stabilizes dopamine concentrations in the CNS

B.

Induces anxiety

C.

Causes hallucinations

D.

Reduces platelet function



QUESTION 15

  1. The synaptic cleft is best characterized by which of the following statements?

A.

The synaptic cleft is the space between a single neuron's dendrites and axon terminals in which intracellular communication occurs through the release of neurotransmitters allowing for signal conduction throughout the central nervous system.

B.

The synaptic cleft is the space between the cell body and axon terminals that allows for release of neurotransmitters from the presynaptic neuron for intercellular communication with an adjacent neuron (post synaptic neuron).

C.

The synaptic cleft is an area where dendrites and axon terminals are within close proximity, allowing for the release of a neurotransmitter from a presynaptic neuron that can interact with receptors on dendritic cells of a post synaptic neuron, which is the main basis for intercellular communication of neurons.



QUESTION 16

  1. Which of the following consists of all the known major neurotransmitters that are relevant in psychiatry?

A.

glutamate, GABA, dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, histamine, steroids, nitric oxide

B.

glutamate, GABA, dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, acetylcholine, histamine, endogenous opioids, steroids, cannabinoids, nitric oxide

C.

glutamate, GABA, dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine, endogenous opioids, nitric oxide, cannabinoids, steroids

D.

glutamate, GABA, dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, endogenous opioids, steroids, histamine, nitric oxide



QUESTION 17

  1. When dopamine (subtype 2) receptors are blocked in this pathway (system), it is evident by EPS.

A.

Mesocortical

B.

Tuberoinfundibular

C.

Nigrostriatal

D.

Mesolimbic



QUESTION 18

  1. A patient arrives in the ED via EMS having a grand mal seizure. The ED physician instructs the RN to give 10 milligrams of Diazepam IV X1 dose STAT. The patient's seizure breaks within 2 minutes of the Diazepam being administered. The mechanism by which this medication causes rapid resolution of seizure activity is via which receptor type (effector pathway/receptor subtype)?

A.

Slow effector pathways/G-protein coupled receptor

B.

Slow effector pathway/ion channel

C.

Rapid effector pathways/G-protein coupled receptor

D.

Rapid effector pathway/ion channel



QUESTION 19

  1. G-protein coupled receptors are targets for several psychiatric medications. Given what we know about these receptors, what is the ultimate result we will see when one of them is activated in a way that would potentiate an action?

A.

Intracellular activation of second messengers

B.

Protein phosphorylation

C.

Modification of gene expression


 

QUESTION 20

  1. If a patient admits to taking his medication every other day (instead of daily, as prescribed), a potential concern would be:

A.

Sufficient understanding or acceptance of the illness

B.

Abuse of the medication

C.

Expense

D.

Is the desired effect recognized at a lower daily dose?

Answer & Explanation
Verified Solved by verified expert
<p>ctum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, c</p> Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet

Unlock full access to Course Hero

Explore over 16 million step-by-step answers from our library

Subscribe to view answer

a. Fusce dui

  • amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec


inia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. F

nec facilisi

  • inia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur


ec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus

usce dui lectus, co

  • molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue


Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur ad

onec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, co

  • onec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna


cing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesqu

a. Fusce dui lec

  • sus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dol


dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar torto

congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis.

  • ce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ips


risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus

m ipsum dolor sit amet, c

  • ec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui


molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultri

, ultrices ac magna. Fusce

  • a. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur ad


nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, u

m ipsum dol

  • at, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue


iscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pell

e vel laoreet ac, dictum

  • tesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur a


consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet.

facilisis. Pellentesque dap

  • s ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec faci


nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet a

consect


a. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec faci

a molesti

  • acinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, conse

nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec f

ctum vitae odio. Donec a


ng elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur

trices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laore


facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac

ec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis.


, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam la

rem ipsum dolor


ec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec

Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vit


a. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante,

gue vel laoreet ac, dictu


llentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue v

amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar

Step-by-step explanation

a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia

iscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequ