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Which of the following consists of all the known major neurotransmitters that are relevant in psychiatry?

A.glutamate, GABA, dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, histamine, steroids, nitric oxide

B.glutamate, GABA, dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, acetylcholine, histamine, endogenous opioids, steroids, cannabinoids, nitric oxide

C.glutamate, GABA, dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine, endogenous opioids, nitric oxide, cannabinoids, steroids

D.glutamate, GABA, dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, endogenous opioids, steroids, histamine, nitric oxide


Neurotransmission is unidirectional insofar as chemical and electrical conduction is concerned within the individual neuron. Of the following descriptions, which best characterizes the order of neurotransmitter/receptor interaction that results in an electrical signal impulse and the release of another neurotransmitter for interaction in the synaptic cleft (signal conduction through a neuron)?

A.Cell body, dendrites, Axon, Axon terminals

B.Dendrites, Axon, Cell body, Axon, Axon terminals

C.Dendrites, Cell body, Axon, Axon terminals

D.Axon terminals, Axon, Cell body, Dendrites


The human brain is subcategorized into four major structures. These structures include the cerebral cortex, brainstem, subcortical structures, and the cerebellum. Of these major categories, which one houses the area of the brain that has been found in some neuropathological studies of patients with schizophrenia to be of smaller size?

  1. A.Cerebral cortex
  2. B.Brainstem
  3. C.Subcortical structures
  4. D.Cerebellum


Motivation is a component of patient-focused interventions to enhance adherence. Based on the transtheoretical model, readiness to change can fluctuate across five stages. Which stage is represented by the patient who is aware that a problem exists and, while seriously thinking about overcoming it, has not yet committed to a plan of action?

  1. A.Preparation
  2. B.Action
  3. C.Contemplation
  4. D.Maintenance


If a patient admits to taking his medication every other day (instead of daily, as prescribed), a potential concern would be:

  1. A.Sufficient understanding or acceptance of the illness
  2. B.Abuse of the medication
  3. C.Expense
  4. D.Is the desired effect recognized at a lower daily dose?


Upon blocking a Serotonin reuptake pump, what happens in the synaptic cleft and on the post synaptic cell membrane?

  1. A.The result will be an increase in available Serotonin in the synaptic cleft causing the post synaptic cell to increase the number of Serotonin receptors.
  2. B.The result will be an increase in the available Serotonin in the synaptic cleft causing the post synaptic neuron to reduce the number of Serotonin receptors.
  3. C.The result will be an increase in Serotonin in the synaptic cleft resulting in an increase in reuptake pumps on the presynaptic neuron.
  4. D.The result will be an increase in Serotonin in the synaptic cleft resulting in a decrease in reuptake pumps on the pre-synaptic neuron.



Glia cells play a supportive role to the neuron. A few of the functions of the glial cells include providing nutrition, maintaining homeostasis, stabilizing synapses, and myelinating axons. The glial cells are categorized as microglia and macroglia. Of these two cell types, which one plays an active and critical role in glutamatergic neurotransmission by providing a co-agonist required for glutamate receptor function?

  1. A.microglial
  2. B.macroglial

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