Questions 1 - 4: Research Problem and Purpose. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 2, 5, and 12) 1.Which choice below best reflects the...
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Questions 1 - 4: Research Problem and Purpose. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 2, 5, and 12)

1.      Which choice below best reflects the problem statement for the instructor-assigned article?

a.      The anticipated increase in elders who need hospitalization is a societal concern, as more U.S. healthcare dollars are spent on elders than on any other age group.

b.      Some elders reported not being satisfied with the care they received when hospitalized, and attributed this to nurses not knowing what elders want and need in their care.

c.      Nursing care in the NICHE (2015) model of care could be different from nursing care on general hospital units.

d.      There has been little information about what aspects of nursing care or nursing caring behaviors might actually contribute to the health outcome of functional status, and if the nurse caring behaviors perceived by elders are satisfying to them.


2.    Which of the choices below best reflects the purpose statement for the instructor assigned article?

a.      The aim is to treat the whole person, not simply the clinical condition.

b.      The ultimate goal of these care strategies is to maintain and even improve functional status ...

c.      To investigate seven hypotheses: ...

d.      The aim is to treat the whole person, not simply the clinical condition.


3. According to Grove & Gray (2019), which of the following statements are important when considering the significance and relevance of a study's problem and purpose?

a.      Does it predict the non-significant findings anticipated in the study?

b.      Does it specifically influence nursing education in university settings?

c.      Does it identify the future research to be generated by the study?

d.      Does it promote theory testing or development?

e.      Does it identify extraneous variables?


4. When considering the feasibility of a study's problem and purpose, Grove & Gray (2019) suggest that several areas should be evaluated, including: researcher expertise, money commitment, ethical considerations, and availability of subjects, facilities, and equipment.  Which of the following statements accurately assesses the feasibility of this article?

a.      Funding sources for the study were clearly identified.

b.      The background section relates the study to previous research.

c.      100% of the eligible subjects contacted participated in the study.

d.      Evidence of protection of the subjects' rights was mentioned in this article.

 

Questions 5 - 7: Review of the Literature. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 6 & 12.)

5.  According to Grove & Gray (2019), which one of the following is NOT a major purpose of the review of literature (ROL):

a.      Describing the current knowledge of the practice problem.

b.      Explaining the reasons behind the selection of the statistics used in the study.

c.      Identifying gaps in the knowledge base of the practice problem.

d.      Explaining how the current study contributes to the knowledge being built.


6.  Select the most important topic covered in the review of literature (ROL) from the list below:


a.  A predictive correlational non-experimental design was employed.

b.  Knowledge of how to care is an important antecedent to caring behaviors.

c.  There has been little written about what aspects of caring behaviors contribute to functional status. 

d.   Physical function is the ability to manage every day function of daily life.

 

7. Current knowledge in the review of literature (ROL) (all information included before the "Methods") is considered to be articles that are within 5 years of the publication date of the article. This is often assessed by reviewing the citations that are used in the ROL and counting the number that meet this criterion.  Which number below most closely reflects the number of current citations in the ROL? (HINT-look for references in the ROL that are between 2011-2016.)

a.      1

b.      2

c.      6

d.      7

 

Questions 8 - 10: Study Framework. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 7 & 12)

8.  Which of these statements best describes this study's research framework?


a.      The author does not include a framework.

b.      The study was based on a hypothesis testing framework.

c.      A predictive correlational non-experimental design was used.

d.      The study is based on caring theory.

            

9.  What are some of the key concepts in this study's theoretical framework?

  1. Antecedents to caring include knowledge of how to care, how to express care, knowledge of the patient and of the self.
  2. Some elders reported not being satisfied with the care they received when hospitalized, and attributed this to nurses not knowing what elders want and need in their care.
  3. The study does not have any clearly defined concepts within a framework because it has an implicit framework.
  4. Chronic and acute illness superimposed upon elders can increase their frailty and compromise their ability to perform activities of daily living.


10. Which one of the statements below is an example of a relational statement from the theoretical framework?

a.      This study does not have any clearly defined concepts within a framework because it has an implicit framework.

b.      Hospitalized elders' perceptions of nurse caring behaviors are positively related to satisfaction with care.

c.      Nurse caring behaviors can be fostered in the ACE model of care as opposed to the general medical unit because nurses who work on the ACE unit receive specialized education in caring for elders.

d.      The ultimate goal of these strategies is to maintain and even improve functional status and to prevent functional decline.



Questions 11 - 15: Research objectives, questions, or hypotheses and research variables. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 5 & 12)


11.  Studies may include research objectives, research questions, or research hypotheses. Which are included in this study?

 

a.      Research objective

b.      Research question

c.      Research hypothesis

d.      None of the above


12.  Which of these are considered to be MAJOR study variables in this study.

a.      Caring, functional status, and type of care

b.      Caring behaviors, functional status, and patient satisfaction

c.      Type of unit, caring, and functional decline

d.      Age, caring behaviors, and functional status


13.  What is the conceptual definition of the following study variable: patient satisfaction

a.      There is a link between patient satisfaction and quality care.

b.      Patient satisfaction is a response that what was expected and wanted in seeking health was actually received.

c.      Hospitalized elders' perception of nurse caring behaviors are positively related to satisfaction with nursing care.

d.      Patient satisfaction is most frequently referred to as an outcome of quality nursing care.


14.  What is the operational definition of the following study variable: functional status

a.   Decline in functional status can negatively affect independence and quality of life in elders.

b.  The operational definition of functional status is not given.  

c.   The Katz Index of Activities of Daily Living.

d.    Physical function is the ability to manage every day function of daily life.


15.  Which demographic variables were assessed by the author for this study?

a.      Age, gender, race, religion, marital status

b.      Age, gender, race, occupation, marital status

c.      Age, diagnosis, race, religion, income level

d.      Age, gender, race, occupation, marital status, diagnosis


Questions 16- 19: Research Design (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 1, 8, & 12)

16.  Which phrases best describe the research design of this study? 

a.      Descriptive

b.      Correlational

c.      Quasi-experimental

d.      Mixed methods


17.   Which phrase best describes the time element of the research design of this study?

a.    Cross-sectional design

b.   Longitudinal design

c.    None of the above


18.  Does the study include a treatment or intervention described in the methods section?

a.  Caring behaviors was the intervention.

b.  Whether the participants were treated  on the ACE unit or the telemetry unit can be considered an intervention.

c.  Functional status was the intervention.

d.  There was no true intervention.


19.  Does the author specifically mention that a pilot study was done prior to conducting this study?

a. Yes

b. No



20.  The author indicated that the institutional review board (IRB) authorization was acquired.  The author stated that verbal assent was obtained, per Grove & Gray (2019), which of the following would NOT be considered a situation where the written consent requirement could be waived?


a.  The study is minimal risk.

b.  The procedures involved normally do not require written consent.

c.  The signed document would be the only connection between the person and the study.

d.  The study involves a vulnerable population.


References

1.      Grove, S., & Gray, J. (2019). Understanding nursing research (7th ed). St. Louis: Elsevier.


Your assigned article for critique is:

 

Dey, M.M. (2016). Relationship of hospitalized elders' perceptions of nurse caring behaviors, type of care unit, satisfaction with nursing care, and   health outcome of functional status. International Journal for Human Caring, 3. 134-141. doi:10.20467/1091-5710-20.3.134

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