Your assigned article for critique is: Dey, M. (2016). Relationship of hospitalized elders' perceptions of nurse caring behaviors, type of care unit,...
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Your assigned article for critique is:

 

Dey, M.M. (2016). Relationship of hospitalized elders' perceptions of nurse caring behaviors, type of care unit, satisfaction with nursing care, and   health outcome of functional status. International Journal for Human Caring, 3. 134-141. doi:10.20467/1091-5710-20.3.134

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References

1.      Grove, S., & Gray, J. (2019). Understanding nursing research (7th ed). St. Louis: Elsevier.


Part I:

Questions 1 - 4: Research Problem and Purpose. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 2, 5, and 12)

1.      Which choice below best reflects the problem statement for the instructor-assigned article?

a.      The anticipated increase in elders who need hospitalization is a societal concern, as more U.S. healthcare dollars are spent on elders than on any other age group.

b.      Some elders reported not being satisfied with the care they received when hospitalized, and attributed this to nurses not knowing what elders want and need in their care.

c.      Nursing care in the NICHE (2015) model of care could be different from nursing care on general hospital units.

d.      There has been little information about what aspects of nursing care or nursing caring behaviors might actually contribute to the health outcome of functional status, and if the nurse caring behaviors perceived by elders are satisfying to them.


2.    Which of the choices below best reflects the purpose statement for the instructor assigned article?

a.      The aim is to treat the whole person, not simply the clinical condition.

b.      The ultimate goal of these care strategies is to maintain and even improve functional status ...

c.      To investigate seven hypotheses: ...

d.      The aim is to treat the whole person, not simply the clinical condition.


3. According to Grove & Gray (2019), which of the following statements are important when considering the significance and relevance of a study's problem and purpose?

a.      Does it predict the non-significant findings anticipated in the study?

b.      Does it specifically influence nursing education in university settings?

c.      Does it identify the future research to be generated by the study?

d.      Does it promote theory testing or development?

e.      Does it identify extraneous variables?


4. When considering the feasibility of a study's problem and purpose, Grove & Gray (2019) suggest that several areas should be evaluated, including: researcher expertise, money commitment, ethical considerations, and availability of subjects, facilities, and equipment.  Which of the following statements accurately assesses the feasibility of this article?

a.      Funding sources for the study were clearly identified.

b.      The background section relates the study to previous research.

c.      100% of the eligible subjects contacted participated in the study.

d.      Evidence of protection of the subjects' rights was mentioned in this article.

 

Questions 5 - 7: Review of the Literature. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 6 & 12.)

5.  According to Grove & Gray (2019), which one of the following is NOT a major purpose of the review of literature (ROL):

a.      Describing the current knowledge of the practice problem.

b.      Explaining the reasons behind the selection of the statistics used in the study.

c.      Identifying gaps in the knowledge base of the practice problem.

d.      Explaining how the current study contributes to the knowledge being built.


6.  Select the most important topic covered in the review of literature (ROL) from the list below:


a.  A predictive correlational non-experimental design was employed.

b.  Knowledge of how to care is an important antecedent to caring behaviors.

c.  There has been little written about what aspects of caring behaviors contribute to functional status. 

d.   Physical function is the ability to manage every day function of daily life.

 

7. Current knowledge in the review of literature (ROL) (all information included before the "Methods") is considered to be articles that are within 5 years of the publication date of the article. This is often assessed by reviewing the citations that are used in the ROL and counting the number that meet this criterion.  Which number below most closely reflects the number of current citations in the ROL? (HINT-look for references in the ROL that are between 2011-2016.)

a.      1

b.      2

c.      6

d.      7

 

Questions 8 - 10: Study Framework. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 7 & 12)

8.  Which of these statements best describes this study's research framework?


a.      The author does not include a framework.

b.      The study was based on a hypothesis testing framework.

c.      A predictive correlational non-experimental design was used.

d.      The study is based on caring theory.

            

9.  What are some of the key concepts in this study's theoretical framework?

  1. Antecedents to caring include knowledge of how to care, how to express care, knowledge of the patient and of the self.
  2. Some elders reported not being satisfied with the care they received when hospitalized, and attributed this to nurses not knowing what elders want and need in their care.
  3. The study does not have any clearly defined concepts within a framework because it has an implicit framework.
  4. Chronic and acute illness superimposed upon elders can increase their frailty and compromise their ability to perform activities of daily living.


10. Which one of the statements below is an example of a relational statement from the theoretical framework?

a.      This study does not have any clearly defined concepts within a framework because it has an implicit framework.

b.      Hospitalized elders' perceptions of nurse caring behaviors are positively related to satisfaction with care.

c.      Nurse caring behaviors can be fostered in the ACE model of care as opposed to the general medical unit because nurses who work on the ACE unit receive specialized education in caring for elders.

d.      The ultimate goal of these strategies is to maintain and even improve functional status and to prevent functional decline.



Questions 11 - 15: Research objectives, questions, or hypotheses and research variables. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 5 & 12)


11.  Studies may include research objectives, research questions, or research hypotheses. Which are included in this study?

 

a.      Research objective

b.      Research question

c.      Research hypothesis

d.      None of the above


12.  Which of these are considered to be MAJOR study variables in this study.

a.      Caring, functional status, and type of care

b.      Caring behaviors, functional status, and patient satisfaction

c.      Type of unit, caring, and functional decline

d.      Age, caring behaviors, and functional status


13.  What is the conceptual definition of the following study variable: patient satisfaction

a.      There is a link between patient satisfaction and quality care.

b.      Patient satisfaction is a response that what was expected and wanted in seeking health was actually received.

c.      Hospitalized elders' perception of nurse caring behaviors are positively related to satisfaction with nursing care.

d.      Patient satisfaction is most frequently referred to as an outcome of quality nursing care.


14.  What is the operational definition of the following study variable: functional status

a.   Decline in functional status can negatively affect independence and quality of life in elders.

b.  The operational definition of functional status is not given. 

c.   The Katz Index of Activities of Daily Living.

d.   Physical function is the ability to manage every day function of daily life.


15.  Which demographic variables were assessed by the author for this study?

a.      Age, gender, race, religion, marital status

b.      Age, gender, race, occupation, marital status

c.      Age, diagnosis, race, religion, income level

d.      Age, gender, race, occupation, marital status, diagnosis


Questions 16- 19: Research Design (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 1, 8, & 12)

16.  Which phrases best describe the research design of this study? 

a.      Descriptive

b.      Correlational

c.      Quasi-experimental

d.      Mixed methods


17.   Which phrase best describes the time element of the research design of this study?

a.    Cross-sectional design

b.   Longitudinal design

c.    None of the above


18.  Does the study include a treatment or intervention described in the methods section?

a.  Caring behaviors was the intervention.

b.  Whether the participants were treated on the ACE unit or the telemetry unit can be considered an intervention.

c.  Functional status was the intervention.

d.  There was no true intervention.


19.  Does the author specifically mention that a pilot study was done prior to conducting this study?

a. Yes

b. No



20.  The author indicated that the institutional review board (IRB) authorization was acquired. The author stated that verbal assent was obtained, per Grove & Gray (2019), which of the following would NOT be considered a situation where the written consent requirement could be waived?


a.  The study is minimal risk.

b.  The procedures involved normally do not require written consent.

c.  The signed document would be the only connection between the person and the study.

d.  The study involves a vulnerable population.


Part II:

Questions 1 - 9: Sample. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters: 9 & 12)

1. What sampling method or plan was used by the authors in this study?

a. Simple random sampling

b. Systematic sampling

c. Convenience sampling

d. Network sampling

 

2. According to Grove & Gray (2019), what are the potential biases of this sampling method?

a. This is a strong probability sampling method with very little potential for bias.

b. This method is used when an ordered list of all members of the population are available, and provides a random but not equal chance for inclusion in the study.

c. This method provides little opportunity to control for bias because subjects are included in the study merely because they happen to be in the right place at the right time.

d. This method is specific to the individuals who were recruited and the information gained cannot be generalized to others who don't share these types of experiences.

e. None of the above biases best describe the sampling method chosen by the author.

 

3. What was the final sample size reported by the authors for this study?

a. 180 participants

b. 115 participants annually

c. 82 participants per month

d. 28 participants

 

4. Was a power analysis conducted? If so, which statement best describes the results of the power analysis?

a. The authors mention that a power analysis was conducted using a power of 0.8, an alpha value of 0.5, and a moderate effect size.

b. The authors mention that a power analysis was conducted, and 90 participants were needed for each group.

c. The authors do not report that a power analysis was conducted.

d. The authors mention that a power analysis was conducted using a power of 0.8, and alpha value of 0.5, and a strong effect size.

 

5. Which of these statements would be considered to be specific inclusion criterion for the sample in the research article?

a. Participants were able to understand English.

b. Participants were able to read and write.

c. Participants were patients on the telemetry unit or the ACE unit.

d. Participants were scheduled to be discharged.

 

 

6. Which of these statements would be considered to be exclusion criterion specifically identified by the author for the sample in the research article?

a. Participants could not complete the survey forms.

b. Participants were less than seventy years old.

c. Participants had delirium or dementia.

d. No exclusion criteria were specifically reported by the authors.

 

 

7. What is the acceptance rate for this study?

a. 100%

b. 182/180 X 100% = 99%

c. 2/180 X 100% = 1%

d. unknown / cannot be calculated

 

 

8. Which of the following would be accurate for the attrition rate for this study?

a. 1/78 X 100% = 1%

b. 0%

c. 77/78 x 100% = 98%

d. unknown / cannot be calculated

 

9. What was the setting for this research study? Briefly describe the setting and indicate whether it was appropriate for conducting this study.

a. The setting for this study was a partially controlled setting and was appropriate for this study's research design.

b. The setting for this study was a natural or field setting and was appropriate for this study's research design.

c. The setting for this study was a highly controlled setting and was appropriate for this study's research design.

d. The setting for this study was not well described by the authors and therefore not appropriate for conducting this study.

 

Question 10 - 14: Measurement Methods. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 10 & 12.)

10. Which ones of these questionnaires, scales, or physiologic measures are used in this research study?

a. The Katz Index of Activities of Daily Living

b. The Pearlin Stress Process Model

c. The Bandura Self-Efficacy Scale

e. Clinical Skills Self-Efficacy Scale

 


 

11. How do the authors describe the CURRENT reliability of the Caring Behaviors Inventory for Elders (CBI-E)?

            a. They allowed the participants to complete the scale in a location of their own choice.

b. They reported a Cronbach's alpha level of 0.94.

c. They tested the current group of subjects using two different versions of the same scale (alternate forms reliability).

d. They computed a Cronbach's alpha on a modified version of the scale that was administered to this group of subjects.

 

12. How do the authors describe the validity of the Caring Behaviors Inventory for Elders (CBI-E) used in this study?

a. The Caring Behaviors Inventory for Elders (CBI-E) scale was reviewed by six experts prior to being used in this study.

b. The Caring Behaviors Inventory for Elders (CBI-E) was examined by face, construct, and discriminant validity methods.

c. The Caring Behaviors Inventory for Elders (CBI-E) was described as having construct validity.

d. The Caring Behaviors Inventory for Elders (CBI-E) readability levels were identified prior to being used in this study.

 

13. What types of questionnaires or surveys were used in this research study?

a. The authors developed the Caring Behaviors Inventory for Elders (CBI-E).

b. The authors developed their own questions to ask about demographic information.

c. Interviews were reportedly used, but the author does not explain what was included in them.

d. The authors developed their own questions to assess functional status.

 

14. Were any physiological measurements collected from the subjects for the purpose of this study?

a. Yes

b. No

 

Question 15- 16: Data Collection. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 10 & 12)

15. Which of the following best describes the data collection process used in this study?

a. Participants were contacted by phone by nurse researcher.

b. Primary unit nurses obtained participants' Katz Index of Activity of Daily Living scores on admission and discharge.

c. Questionnaires / surveys were mailed to the prospective returned in a self-addressed stamped envelope.

d. Researchers consented participants after face to face discussion of study.

 

16. Based on the study's data collection methods, if there were more than one data collector, would an estimation of inter-rater reliability be an important concept for the authors to report on for this study?

a. Yes, and the authors reported their efforts to achieve inter-rater reliability.

b. Yes, but the authors do not discuss any efforts to achieve inter-rater reliability.

c. No, the issue of inter-rater reliability does not apply here.

 

Question 17 - 19: Data Analysis. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 11 & 12)

17. What descriptive statistics were NOT reported in this study?

a. mean

b. median

c. frequencies

d. kurtosis

 

18. Which one of these inferential statistics were NOT used to examine the data obtained from the participants?

a. Pearson correlation

b. Spearman rho

c. Multiple regression

d. Chi square

 

19. What is the level of significance (alpha level) set at for this study?

a. .01 or 1%

b. .05 or 5%

c. .10 or 10%

d. An alpha level or level of significance chosen by the authors was not specifically mentioned in the text of the article.

 


 

Question 20-25: Researcher's Interpretation of the Findings. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 11 & 12)

20. Which statement from the article would be considered a significant result?

a. In this study, the summed CBI-E score (M = 72.07, SD = 6.78) indicated that the total population of subjects (elders; n = 180) perceived high levels of caring.

b. Among total respondents (n = 180), 154 subjects (85.6%) experienced no decline, 26 (14.4%) experienced decline.

c. There is a postive correlation between elders' perceptions of nurse caring behavior and functional status.

            d. There is a positive correlation between elders' perceptions of nurse caring behavior and satisfaction with care.

             

21. Which one of these statements from the article would be considered a non-significant result?

a. The percentage of elders who declined on the ACE unit was higher than on the telemetry unit.

b. There was a positive correlation between elders' perceptions of nurse caring behavior and satisfaction with care.

c. There was a negative correlation between elders' perceptions of nurse caring behavior and satisfaction with care.

            d. The regression model of type of unit and nurse caring models predicting satisfaction of care explained 24% of the variance of elders' satisfaction with care.

 

22. Which one of these statements from the article would be considered clinically important?

            a. Among total respondents (n = 180), 154 subjects (85.6%) experienced no decline, 26 (14.4%) experienced decline.

           b. There was a negative correlation between elders' perceptions of nurse caring behavior and satisfaction with care.

           c. In this study, the summed CBI-E score (M = 72.07, SD = 6.78) indicated that the total population of subjects (elders; n = 180) perceived high levels of caring.

           d. In this study, elders 70 and older were satisfied with nursing care when they perceived caring nursing behaviors.

                       

23. Which statements below, as reported by the author, would be considered a limitation of the study?

a. The instrument CBI-E had not been tested previously in a hospital setting.

b. In this study acutely ill hospitalized elders reported that nurses demonstrated caring behaviors, and they were satisfied with nursing care.

c. Elder care is complex, a specialty that requires specialized education.

d. The interaction of nurse caring behaviors (predictive variable) and type of unit (moderator) was neither associated with nor did it predict satisfaction with nursing care.

 

24. Which of these statements would be considered a statement regarding generalization of these results?

a. The sample lacked cultural and racial diversity.

b. The instrument CBI-E had not been tested previously in a hospital setting.

c. Elder care is complex, a specialty that requires specialized education.

d. In this study acutely ill hospitalized elders reported that nurses demonstrated caring behaviors, and they were satisfied with nursing care.

 

25. Which of these statements from the article would be considered a recommendation for future studies?

 

a. The interaction of nurse caring behaviors (predictive variable) and type of unit (moderator) was neither associated with nor did it predict satisfaction with nursing care.

b. Additional research is needed to identify the factors that contribute to the functional decline of hospitalized elders.

c. Although there was no unit difference in subjects' functional status decline, the overall rate of functional decline (14.4%) was lower than the 33% in previous studies.

            d. Teaching elder care in new-nurse orientation might improve nurse caring behaviors that lead to satisfaction and care quality.

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