View the step-by-step solution to: 2. •Resource: Appendix A: The Community Services Code of

2. •Resource: Appendix A: The Community...
2. •Resource: Appendix A: The Community Services Code of Ethics, in Ethical Leadership in Human Services
•Compose a 200- to 300-word response to the following: The Community Services Code of Ethics in Appendix A of Ethical Leadership in Human Services states, “Whatever your personal feelings about the justice and appropriateness of particular laws, all board members, staff, and volunteers are to obey all laws in the performance of their work on behalf of Community Services.” Why do you think this instruction is necessary? What does it tell you about the relationship between law and ethics?

hsm230_week1_reading2.pdf

APPENDIX A

The Community Services Code
of Ethics (Adopted August 30, 1993)
The mission and values statement of Community Services, together with a general
consensus within our agency on desirable and acceptable moral behavior, obligate our
board, our staff, and our volunteers to observe the following standards of conduct in
the performance of our work:

Obedience to the Law








Whatever our personal feelings about the justice and appropriateness of particular laws, all board members, staff, and volunteers are to obey all laws in the performance of their work on behalf of Community Services.
All funds are to be solicited in full compliance with the relevant laws and tax regulations.
Our agencys financial activity is to be reported in compliance with all required
laws and regulations.
Where laws clearly conflict with the welfare of our agency, our clients, or the
community we serve, we will attempt to change the offending laws through legislative action or, if necessary, through the recognized judicial process.

Commitment to Diversity
The selection of board members, staff members and volunteers, and the delivery of
programs and services by Community Services are to be carried out without regard to
race, religion, ethnicity, economic status, gender, age, sexual orientation, or physical
ability.

Discrimination and Harassment
All Community Services employees, board members, and volunteers are to refrain
from any sort of discrimination and harassment of any clients or co-workers based on

ISBN: 0-536-12115-X

Reprinted with permission from Rigg, M. & Allen, M. (1994). The ethics audit checklist. In Conducting an
ethics audit: A checklist for nonprofits (pp. 1927). Colorado Association for Nonprofit Organizations
(CANPO).

265

Ethical Leadership in Human Services: A Multi-Dimensional Approach, by Susan Schissler Manning. Published by Allyn and Bacon. Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc.

266

A P P E N D I X A / The Community Services Code of Ethics

race, religion, ethnicity, economic status, gender, age, sexual orientation, or physical
ability.

Communication of Information














Our commitment to openness and honesty requires, as a minimum, that all financial records and records of organizational activity be open to all donors, funders, and the general public.
All staff and volunteers are to be open and honest in the communication of information with their clients, the community, and the general public, withholding information only in the greater interest or when perceived as absolutely
necessary to the welfare of our agency. This includes information contained in
marketing, fund raising, and public relations materials.
Board members, staff, and volunteers are to be open and honest in their working relationships with one another.
No information about the agency or its programs relevant to the performance
of an individuals responsibilities is to be withheld from that individual.
Specific efforts are to be undertaken to ensure that volunteers are given complete and accurate information about the agency and the particular projects in
which they are involved.
Any important decisions made, actions taken, or information presented at board
and staff meetings are to be communicated promptly to the staff and to the
board, respectively.
Any information shared in confidence between client and staff or between
agency staff, board, or volunteers is to remain confidential unless, in the considered judgment of the confidant, serious harm to an individual, to the community, or to the agency would be prevented by breaking the confidence.

Conflicts of Interest






As much as possible, conflicts of interest affecting board, staff, and volunteers
are to be avoided. Resolution of any such conflict may necessitate the termination of a professional relationship with a particular vendor or client, abstention
from a vote or from involvement with a particular project, or, in the extreme,
resignation of ones position with the organization.
While friendships are encouraged between participants in the agency and between agency participants and the broader community, romantic entanglements
between agency participants are not encouraged and are prohibited between
agency professionals and their clients.
Board and staff members are not to allow personal relationships to influence decisions regarding staff hiring and evaluation, the choice of vendors, or the provision of programs and services.

ISBN: 0-536-12115-X

Ethical Leadership in Human Services: A Multi-Dimensional Approach, by Susan Schissler Manning. Published by Allyn and Bacon. Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc.

A P P E N D I X A / The Community Services Code of Ethics

267

Responsibilities of and toward Clients
and the Public










The integrity, dignity, and autonomy of the organizations clients and public are
to be respected fully at all times in the delivery of services and the presentation
of programs.
Services are to be delivered honestly, openly, and professionally and with compassion and respect for the clients served.
The aim of all agency services and programs is to be the enhancement of the integrity, autonomy and knowledge of the clients, the clients family, the community, and the public.
Confidentiality in the relationship with all clients is to be respected and maintained unless serious harm to the clients, to other individuals, to the community,
or the agency would be averted by breaking the confidence.
Clients are expected to be responsible in honoring commitments they have
made to enhance the effectiveness of services received, including showing up
promptly for scheduled appointments, and to pay, as arranged, for services rendered.

Responsibilities of Board Members












ISBN: 0-536-12115-X



Board members are entrusted with the moral well-being of Community Services
and are expected to demonstrate the highest moral integrity and leadership both
in their work on behalf of the organization and in their private lives.
Board members are entrusted with the financial well-being of the organization
and are expected to exercise that responsibility with the greatest integrity and
concern.
Board members are expected to perform fully and capably the responsibilities of
their respective board positions.
Board members are expected to recognize the volunteer nature of their commitment and not to expect any perquisites or any financial gain from their involvement in the organization.
Board members are to be given all information relevant to the performance of
their responsibilities and are not be deprived of any information that would
compromise their integrity or autonomy, or affect their ability to perform their
duties.
When necessary, board members are to be given training to enhance their effectiveness.
The performance of board members is to be evaluated on an individual basis
much like the work of paid staff. Exemplary board performance is to be recognized, and poor performance is to be pointed out with the goal of enhancing future performance.

Ethical Leadership in Human Services: A Multi-Dimensional Approach, by Susan Schissler Manning. Published by Allyn and Bacon. Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc.

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A P P E N D I X A / The Community Services Code of Ethics









Board members may be dismissed for dereliction of duty, for continued poor
performance, for serious breach of law or of ethics, or because of irreconcilable
personality conflicts with other members which interfere with their governance
duties. Dismissal of a board member should be done with compassion and fairness and discussed fully with the board member concerned.
Board membership is to be open to as diverse a constituency from the community as possible.
No one should be precluded from participation on the board because of financial circumstances.
No board member should be expected to bear extraordinary personal expenses
in the performance of his or her board duties beyond whatever monetary contribution to the organization the board member might care to make.

Professional and Staff Responsibilities
















All staff members are to honor their responsibility to the code of ethics governing their particular profession unless their professional code is in some way superseded by the Community Services Code of Ethics.
In the event that a code of professional conduct should conflict with Community Services code of ethics or with agency practices or policies, such a conflict
is to be brought to the immediate attention of the agencys executive director.
In general, the agency considers job responsibilities and the professional relationship between agency professionals and their clients to be primary, and no
other responsibilities or collateral relationship between agency professionals and
their clients are to interfere with job responsibilities or with a professional/client
relationship.
Staff are encouraged to discuss any conflict between personal and professional
responsibilities with their supervisor or with the executive director.
All staff are responsible for performing their work as efficiently and professionally as possible. Expenses are to be kept as low as possible.
Staff are responsible for keeping track of non-job-related use of office supplies
and equipment and for reimbursing the agency for any costs incurred, in accordance with the current agency policy.
Staff are encouraged to spend time during the day interacting casually with other
staff, board members, and volunteers as long as such socializing does not prevent
staff from carrying out their required responsibilities in a timely manner.
Staff may pursue personal matters during the work day, but they are to keep such
activities to a minimum and not allow them to interfere with the expeditious
performance of their job responsibilities.

Staff Hiring, Evaluation, and Compensation


Staff are to be hired in as fair and open a process as possible that respects the autonomy and dignity of all job applicants.
ISBN: 0-536-12115-X

Ethical Leadership in Human Services: A Multi-Dimensional Approach, by Susan Schissler Manning. Published by Allyn and Bacon. Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc.

A P P E N D I X A / The Community Services Code of Ethics























269

Only background information relevant to job performance is to be elicited
from candidates; no other information is deemed appropriate to the hiring
process.
Hiring is to be done in compliance with affirmative action guidelines so that the
pool of candidates for a particular position reflects, as much as possible, the
broad diversity of the community regarding race, religion, ethnicity, economic
status, gender, age, sexual orientation, and physical ability.
In all cases, the candidate who demonstrates the greatest promise for success is
to be offered the position.
Staff performance is to be evaluated fairly and honestly. Evaluation is to be based
primarily on job performance and on the contribution the staff member makes
to the building of community within the work place.
In general, staff are encouraged to share any work-related dissatisfaction, problems, or grievances with their supervisor or with the executive director.
Paid staff are encouraged in general to further their skills and education. They
are especially encouraged to pursue training, at the agencys expense or on job
release time, to improve areas of job performance that are deficient or in order
to enhance their work-related skills and knowledge.
Salary levels are to be set fairly and appropriately. The only relevant salary considerations are (1) level of job responsibility and technical sophistication, (2)
prior education and experience, (3) seniority, (4) job performance, and (5) comparable market salary.
Efforts will be made to compensate employees as generously as possible consistent with relevant salary considerations and the long-term financial well-being
of the agency.
The salary differential between the highest-paid and lowest-paid employees is to
be reasonable and not excessive and based only on the relevant salary considerations enumerated above.
Termination of staff members is to be undertaken as a last resort and, when necessary, to be done fairly and compassionately and discussed thoroughly with the
staff member.
Employees who are terminated are to be compensated fairly and promptly for
salary outstanding.

Responsibilities of and toward Volunteers




ISBN: 0-536-12115-X



Volunteer participation in the organization is to be open to as diverse a constituency from the community as possible.
Volunteers and donors are to be treated with the same dignity and respect as
board members and paid staff.
Volunteers are to be given all information relevant to the performance of their
responsibilities and are not to be deprived of any information that would compromise their integrity or autonomy or might affect their decision to participate
in a particular project.

Ethical Leadership in Human Services: A Multi-Dimensional Approach, by Susan Schissler Manning. Published by Allyn and Bacon. Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc.

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A P P E N D I X A / The Community Services Code of Ethics


















When necessary, volunteers are to be given training to enhance their effectiveness.
Volunteers are to be given clear job definitions and expectations.
The performance of volunteers is to be evaluated on an individual basis much
like the work of paid staff. Exemplary job performance by volunteers is to be
recognized, and poor performance is to be pointed out with the goal of enhancing future performance.
Volunteers may be dismissed for continued poor performance, for serious
breach of the law or of ethics, because of irreconcilable personality conflicts, or
out of financial necessity. Dismissal of a volunteer should be done with compassion and fairness and discussed fully with the volunteer concerned.
Volunteers are expected to perform the responsibilities they agreed to assume
promptly and capably and to inform the organization if other commitments
conflict with their organizational responsibilities.
Volunteers are encouraged to discuss any problems they encounter with the volunteer or project coordinator or, if necessary, with the executive director.
Whenever possible, volunteers are to be invited to participate in organizational
programs and activities out of gratitude for their contribution and in an effort to
strengthen the organizations sense of community.
Volunteers are asked to recognize the volunteer nature of their contribution to
the organization and not to expect perquisites in exchange for the performance
of their organizational responsibilities.
Volunteers are to be reimbursed promptly and completely for any previously authorized out-of-pocket expenses incurred in the performance of their work on
behalf of the organization.

Solicitation and Investment of Funds













The solicitation of funds on behalf of Community Services is to be carried out
according to the highest ethical standards and in full compliance with the laws
and regulations governing fund raising in nonprofit organizations.
Established codes of fund raising ethics, such as that of the National Society of
Fund Raising Executives, are to be followed scrupulously unless they are in
some way superseded by the Community Services Code of Ethics.
The autonomy and dignity of the donor or potential donor are to be respected
at all times.
Complete honesty and disclosure are to characterize all dealings with donors.
All fund raising and marketing materials are to be scrupulously honest and to
avoid any deceit or misrepresentation.
While persuasion in the solicitation of funds is necessary and encouraged, anyone soliciting funds on behalf of Community Services is to refrain from any
form of coercion in his or her solicitation.
The donation of money is to be regarded as an opportunity to do good, and it
should be extended to as wide and diverse a population as possible.
ISBN: 0-536-12115-X

Ethical Leadership in Human Services: A Multi-Dimensional Approach, by Susan Schissler Manning. Published by Allyn and Bacon. Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc.

A P P E N D I X A / The Community Services Code of Ethics







271

Individuals and organizations known to represent values and practices inimical
to the mission and values of Community Services or to the welfare of the general community are not to be solicited for donations.
No donation is to be accepted under any circumstances if its source is known to
be illegal.
All organizational funds are to be invested in organizations or vehicles whose
practices and values are consistent with the moral values and principles of the
organization and the welfare of the community.

Commitment to Advocacy








Community Services recognizes advocacy as an essential part of its organizational mission.
Board members, staff members, and volunteers are asked, whenever appropriate, to regard advocacy as an essential part of their responsibilities and to make
certain that their work on behalf of the organization promotes the welfare of
clients, the community, and the greater public.
The organization is committed to taking full advantage of the democratic
process, and to educating the public and those in positions of authority and
power regarding issues of concern to the clients and community that the organization serves.
The organization will honor fully the restriction of nonprofit organizations
from devoting disproportionate resources to lobbying efforts or from organizational endorsements of political candidates.

Relationship with Other Agencies






Community Services will strive at all times to be fair, open, and honest in its
dealings with other agencies.
Community Services will enter into partnerships with other agencies only when
such partnerships enhance the ability of Community Services to pursue its mission and its goals.
Community Services will not enter into a working relationship with any agency
whose stated values or mission or whose policies and practices are inimical to the
mission and values of Community Services.

ISBN: 0-536-12115-X

Note: The Community Services Code of Ethics is a reflection of its Values Statement.
The Code of Ethics is an attempt to make the Values Statement operational by defining general guidelines for conduct. Unless a code of ethics is based on a specific, identified set of values,
it is an arbitrary imposition of rules of conduct. No code of ethics is likely to be completely exhaustive, and the Community Services code is probably no exception. Moreover, a code of ethics
is not a policy and procedure manual. While a code might inspire specific policies and procedures, it is more a general statement of principles. The Community Services Code of Ethics

Ethical Leadership in Human Services: A Multi-Dimensional Approach, by Susan Schissler Manning. Published by Allyn and Bacon. Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc.

272

A P P E N D I X A / The Community Services Code of Ethics

mentions, for example, that no one should have to incur extraordinary expenses in the performance of their duties, but it does not specifically say that they can be reimbursed for travel
expenses.
The Community Services Code of Ethics lists both general issues, such as Communication and Conflicts of Interest, and more specific areas of responsibility, such as Staff Hiring,
Evaluation, and Compensation. This makes the documents somewhat redundant at times, but
this redundancy also serves to add emphasis to the importance of following particular moral
principles. In addition, some parts of the Code of Ethics serve the function of protecting the organization and of readily indicating its compliance with various laws and practices. The Commitment to Diversity, the paragraph on Discrimination and Harassment, and the disclaimer
at the end of the section on Commitment to Advocacy are examples of this.

ISBN: 0-536-12115-X

Ethical Leadership in Human Services: A Multi-Dimensional Approach, by Susan Schissler Manning. Published by Allyn and Bacon. Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc.

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