1. When Columbus landed in America, the chief reason that he thought he had landed in “the Indies” was A) the great wealth of the native population. B) the ease with which the natives understood his language. C) his discovery of the place of the Grand Khan. D) his firm belief that he had sailed far enough westward to reach them. E) the plants there were similar to those in Asia. 2. One of the major reasons the Protestant Reformation succeeded was that A) major defenders of Catholicism such as Luther and Calvin were poor leaders. B) Italian merchants realized it made fewer financial demands on them than Catholicism. C) political figures could use its challenge to Rome’s spiritual authority in order to increase their power. D) the Catholic church made many enemies by strongly attacking luxury and corruption. E) it encouraged democratic revolutions to overthrow monarchies throughout Europe. 3. The earliest British colonies were initially financed by A) Elizabeth I. B) joint-stock companies. C) James I. D) Amsterdam bankers. E) Protestant dissenters. 4. In the proprietary colony, the proprietor’s income resulted primarily from A) profits gained from trading with the Native Americans. B) annual rents from lands granted to settlers. C) import and export duties paid by the colonists. D) payments from the monarchy. E) raids on Spanish shipping. 5. According to your text, the answer to the question, “What is an American?” is that Americans A) were mostly European s whose institutions easily fit American conditions. B) have shared a common religious devotion. C) came from a middle-class background. D) have had faith in democracy and freedom. E) have an identity deeply rooted in their history, but still incomplete and evolving. 6. The most accurate statement about tobacco during the seventeenth century is that it A) was immediately encouraged by both King James I and the London Company. B) grew on semicleared land, but required a lot of human labor. C) was introduced to America by the Dutch. D) sold so poorly that there was little interest in growing it. E) was initially grown on large, well-manicured fields. 7. Colonial regulations governing the behavior of blacks A) were forced on the colonies by the British. B) were part of each colony’s basic constitution. C) allowed free blacks to vote and serve on juries. D) gave blacks no civil rights and had severe punishments. E) treated blacks humanely. 8. The American crop which was easily cultivated, had a high yield per acre, and could be used as food for both humans and livestock was A) potatoes. B) wheat. C) corn. D) pumpkins. E) beans. 9. One of the few advantages a colonial governor had in conflicts with his colonial subjects was his A) permanent tenure of office. B) complete freedom to maneuver without restrictions imposed on him by his instructions from the king. C) financial independence from the colonial legislatures. D) power to summon and dismiss the colonial assembly. E) large number of jobs and favors to use as rewards. 10. The Board of Trade’s power to recommend disallowance of colonial laws was A) used against only a small percentage of the laws which it reviewed. B) theoretical only, since the Crown seldom accepted its recommendation. C) used against more than half of the laws which it reviewed. D) ended by a royal order of 1696 because of the colonists’ petition. E) ruled unconstitutional by the House of Lords. 11. The “enumeration” principle in the Navigation Act of 1660 required that A) at least three-fourths of the total value of colonial products had to be shipped in English vessels. B) certain commodities like sugar, tobacco, and indigo could not be shipped outside the British Empire. C) European goods bound for the colonies had to pass through England on the way. D) all colonial commodities had to be sold to British merchants. E) two-thirds of colonial imports had to come from England. 12. The British victory in the French and Indian War was due largely to A) British soldiers financed by the British government. B) American soldiers financed by the colonial assemblies. C) American soldiers financed by the British government. D) British soldiers financed by the colonial assemblies. E) Native American warriors allied with the colonies and the British. 13. According to your text, the first major battle of the Revolutionary War was the Battle of A) Concord. B) Fort Ticonderoga. C) Valley Forge. D) Lexington. E) Bunker Hill. 14. The best estimate of the proportion of Patriots and Tories during the war for independence is that A) most Americans were strongly opposed to independence. B) Patriots were more numerous than Tories, but large numbers of Americans were indifferent. C) Tories constituted less than one percent of the American population. D) the population was about evenly divided between the two groups. E) Tories were more numerous than Patriots, but large numbers of Americans were indifferent. 15. During the winter of 1778, Washington’s army endured severe shortages of food and clothing while camped at A) Valley Forge. B) Germantown. C) Trenton. D) Brandywine. E) Princeton. 16. The union of American states under the Articles of Confederation was a A) compact of states modeled on the British system of a sovereign Parliament. B) centralized system in which the national government held the most power, but the states had control over purely local matters. C) federal system almost exactly like the later union under the Constitution. D) league of friendship, in which the states were sovereign and the national government had only weak delegated powers. E) centralized system with power vested solely in the national government. 17. Which of the following statements about Shays’s Rebellion is true? A) Most Americans agreed with Jefferson that such small rebellions were “a medicine necessary for the sound health of government.” B) Citizens of other states were generally indifferent to it. C) The central government effectively aided Massachusetts in quelling the rebellion. D) Many leaders, such as Washington, concluded that the central government must be strengthened. E) Most of the rebels were unemployed shipyard workers, frustrated by the depression of the 1780s. 18. The president’s veto power and the impeachment power of Congress are both examples of A) substantive due process. B) tort law. C) executive privilege. D) procedural due process. E) checks and balances. 19. The procedure specified for ratifying the Constitution A) was the same as that required for amending the Articles of Confederation. B) depended upon approval of the Constitution by the legislatures of the various states. C) depended upon approval of the Constitution by special conventions in the various states. D) was immediately followed by all 13 states. E) required majority approval in the first national election. 20. Much Anti-Federalist opposition to the Constitution, especially in New York, disappeared when A) the Federalists promised amendments to guarantee the civil liberties of the people. B) it became obvious that the constitution would be adopted over their objections. C) Alexander Hamilton threatened to impose an even stronger national government with the assistance of the army. D) it was agreed that an Anti-Federalist would be chosen vice-president. E) Federalists promised to make New York City the first capital. Bonus question (1 point) 21. After Washington’s Proclamation of Neutrality in 1793, France A) and England each respected American shipping with the other. B) threatened to declare war unless America honored her treaty obligations. C) attacked American shipping, as did England, despite American neutrality. D) respected America’s freedom to trade, but England attacked all American shipping. E) tried to bribe American politicians to oppose Washington.