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1. Which of the following is NOT a type of attention?
A) divided
B) focused
C) selective
D) sustained

2. Elsie, age 80, complains that the food in her assisted living facility is "tasteless." She adds salt to everything and secretly snacks on sugary treats that she has in her room. Elsie:
A) is compensating for her decline in taste by eating the sweet snacks.
B) needs to move to another facility where the chef is more sensitive to her needs.
C) probably has a tumor or a small stroke in the part of the brain associated with taste.
D) probably is depressed and complains about everything.

3. Luka is 72 years old. According to trends noticed in research about how gender roles may or may not change with age, we can expect that Luka is now ________ she was when she was 50.
A) more feminine than
B) more masculine than
C) less feminine than
D) about as feminine as

4. Alice, Jane, Lois, and Sandra have been friends since grade school. Over the years, they given each other support and shared in each others' joys and sad times. This is an example of which model of social support?
A) the longitudinal model
B) the cohort model
C) the convoy model
D) the network model

5. Of the following adults, who is MOST likely to commit suicide?
A) a male in failing health
B) a recently widowed woman
C) an unhappily married woman
D) a widowed man who has just retired

6. What is the main difference between the way younger people and older people respond to stress?
A) Older people have a reduced production of hormones that return the body to normal after stress.
B) Younger people have better coping strategies for dealing with stress.
C) The process of aging increases the pituitary gland's response to stress, making it work harder.
D) Older people keep stress hormones in their system longer.

7. Which type of memory is less likely to be adversely affected by aging?
A) implicit
B) working
C) explicit
D) normative

Which theory explains why older adults spend most of their time with familiar individuals and family?
A) activity theory
B) socioemotional selectivity theory
C) social discontinuity theory
D) disengagement theory

9. Ramon wears a black lapel pin for one year after his father's death. According to Kastenbaum's death systems theory, the lapel pin is a(n) _____ associated with death.
A) talisman
B) object
C) superstition
D) family tradition

10. Millie's physician told her that she needs to reduce her stress. To do this, she should:
A) exercise more.
B) take an assertiveness training course.
C) increase social interactions with peers.
D) reduce caffeine intake.

11. The neurotransmitter _______, which helps to control the preciseness of the signal sent from one neuron to another, decreases with aging.
A) serotonin
B) dopamine
D) noradrenalin

12. Basilio sustained severe and irreversible brain damage due to an accidental overdose of insulin. His wife and his children decided to remove the life-support system, and Basilio subsequently died. This is an example of:
A) active euthanasia.
B) passive euthanasia.
C) natural euthanasia.
D) culturally acceptable euthanasia.

13. ________ has(have) been shown to reduce the decrease in muscle mass and improve the older person's body appearance.
A) Weight lifting
B) Walking
C) Massage
D) Checkups

14. What is the cause of multi-infarct dementia?
A) dying off of dendrite branches
B) a reduction of acetylcholine in the brain
C) a closing of the ventricles in the brain
D) obstruction of blood flow in the cerebral arteries of the brain

15. Paul, age 76, turns the television volume up so that it is at an uncomfortable level for the rest of the family. When his son suggests that he may have a hearing problem, Paul says that he does not and that the volume is "just right." Paul's reaction to having a decline in his ability to hear it is:
A) fairly common in older adults.
B) out of the ordinary; most older adults clearly recognize that they don't hear well.
C) a sign of depression.
D) a sign of hostility toward his family.

16. Which of the following vitamins is an antioxidant?
A) vitamin B
B) vitamin C
C) vitamin D
D) vitamin K

Sally's husband Bruce died suddenly 3 months ago. When her sister-in-law calls to ask how she is doing, Sally says, "Some days are better than others but I miss Bruce every single day." Sally's comment indicates that she:
A) is experiencing a normal grief reaction.
B) is experiencing a prolonged grief reaction.
C) is experiencing a disenfranchised grief reaction.
D) is experiencing a pathological grief reaction

Although Alicia has a great memory for trivia, she has difficulty remembering important events in her life. Alicia has good ________ memory but poor ________ memory.
A) episodic; procedural
B) procedural; semantic
C) semantic; episodic
D) explicit; implicit

Sex education for elderly people has been found to:
A) increase older adults' willingness to talk about sex.
B) increase sexual activity among the elderly.
C) suppress the need for sex that older people feel.
D) create considerable unhappiness among people who do not have the capacity to practice what they are learning.

What is the best predictor of job performance in older adults?
A) cognitive ability
B) strong work ethic
C) high motivation to succeed
D) financial need

The number of years that will probably be lived by the average person born in a particular year is the:
A) life expectancy.
B) life span.
C) life development.
D) biological age.

Approximately __________ of survivors experience normal or uncomplicated grief reactions.
A) 80 to 90%
B) 70 to 80%
C) 60 to 70%
D) 50 to 60%

The development of new neurons in humans has been documented in the ______ and the _______.
A) medulla; thalamus
B) amygdale; hypothalamus
C) hippocampus; olfactory bulb
D) thalamus; pineal gland

The hospice was developed with the goal of:
A) providing inexpensive medical care to those who need it.
B) making the final stage of dying pain-free.
C) giving spiritual and religious counsel to the dying.
D) giving patients a place to stay while they recover from a chronic illness.

Mrs. Hernandez has considerable pain and swelling in her wrists, fingers, and knees. It is becoming very difficult for her to maintain her usual routines as her stiffness increases. Mrs. Hernandez has _______.
A) arteriosclerosis
B) diabetes
C) arthritis
D) osteoporosis

When compared with other ethnic groups, ________ have the highest death rate.
A) African Americans
B) Asian Americans
C) Latinos
D) Whites

Jake is only 25 but wants to reduce his chance of losing cognitive impairment when he is older. What can he do now to prepare?
A) eat foods low in fat
B) do crossword puzzles
C) engage in aerobic exercise
D) quit smoking

________ is to cognitive mechanics, as ________ is to cognitive pragmatics.
A) Hardware; software
B) Software; hardware
C) Developing programs; using programs
D) Using programs; developing programs

One nonmedication treatment that has helped to improve the daily functioning of some patients with Parkinson disease is:
A) electroconvulsive therapy (ECT).
B) cutting the corpus callosum in the brain.
C) deep brain stimulation (DBS).
D) reiki.

According to Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, the second stage of dying is:
A) anger.
B) bargaining.
C) depression.
D) denial and isolation.

The Women's Health Initiative Study of Widowhood was a 3-year longitudinal study designed to examine the ________ of widows.
A) physical health
B) mental health
C) health outcomes
D) All of these.

Maribel's mother needs more services to allow her to continue to live in her own home. Her daughter, Susan, contacts various agencies to line up a home health aid, transportation to medical appointments and Meals-On-Wheels. Susan is acting in the role of _______ for her mother.
A) direct caregiver
B) caregiver by proxy
C) coordinator
D) power of attorney

Cody is a manager for a fast-food restaurant where he has workers ranging from age 17 to 72. Which of the following workers is MOST likely to want to pick up extra hours when Cody asks for volunteers?
A) Stacy, a 17-year-old high-school student
B) Mort, a 50-year-old cook
C) Helen, a 68-year-old former teacher
D) Judy, a 22-year-old college student

Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding young children and their perception of death?
A) They tend to confuse death with sleep.
B) They often believe that only people who want to die actually die.
C) They become very upset by the sight of a dead animal or by being told that a person had died.
D) They believe that the dead can be brought back to life by magic or by giving them food or medical treatment.

When a retired American worker returns to work, it is usually about __________ after retirement.
A) 6 months
B) 1½ years
C) 4 years
D) 7 years

Which of the following statements about older workers is TRUE?
A) Older workers have more accidents than younger workers.
B) Older workers have higher rates of absenteeism than younger workers.
C) Older workers are of considerably less value to a company than younger workers.
D) Older workers experience more job satisfaction than younger workers.

At age 76 years, which chronic condition is Elizabeth MOST likely to have?
A) arthritis
B) heart disease
C) hypertension
D) hearing impairment

Which of the following describes a biological component to the difference in life expectancies between men and women?
A) higher versus lower rates of emphysema
B) existence versus absence of sleep disorders
C) existence versus absence of an X chromosome
D) existence versus absence of a reasoned, practical life view

Remembering where you went on vacation last summer is an example of _______ memory.
A) situational
B) semantic
C) procedural
D) episodic

Zack is in a crowded restaurant trying to pay attention to the waiter who is reading off the daily lunch specials. He is having a difficult time because ________ attention declines as one ages.
A) selective
B) divided
C) focused
D) sustained

What do Pablo Casals, John Rock, and Grandma Moses have in common?
A) They are all individuals who contributed little until they were old.
B) They are people who were intellectually productive well into old age.
C) They are all scientists whose important discoveries occurred when they were very old.
D) They are all examples of how old age gradually reduces mental abilities that flourished in earlier life.

In a cross-sectional study of persons ranging in age from age 13 to 90, researchers found that self-control was lowest in the _________ domain for the individuals who were 60 to 90 years old.
A) physical
B) social
C) emotional
D) sexual

One of the most common language difficulties that older adults experience is:
A) expressive aphasia.
B) stuttering.
C) making up new words that other people don't understand.
D) tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon.

What percentage of dementias is multi-infarct?
A) 2% to 5%
B) 5% to 15%
C) 15% to 25%
D) 50%

Josue has incurable cancer. However, he promises to lead a reformed life dedicated to God if God will spare his life. Josue is in which of Kübler-Ross' stages of dying?
A) denial
B) hope
C) bargaining
D) acceptance

The results of research on health of older adults and cohabitating has:
A) shown a clear increase in overall health for cohabitating couples.
B) has been mixed.
C) shows that cohabitating older couples were less depressed than married couples.
D) shows a slight decrease in overall health for cohabitating couples.

In a cross-sectional study of persons ranging in age from age 13 to 90, researchers found that self-control was lowest in the _________ domain for the individuals who were 13 to 18 years old.
A) physical
B) social
C) emotional
D) sexual

Some researchers believe that reduction in acetylcholine may be responsible for:
A) small declines in memory functioning and severe memory loss associated with Alzheimer disease.
B) small declines in memory functioning but not in severe memory loss associated with Alzheimer disease.
C) severe memory loss associated with Alzheimer disease but not small declines in memory functioning.
D) neither small declines in memory functioning nor severe memory loss associated with Alzheimer disease.

Which of the following biological theories of aging states that people age because their cells' normal metabolism produces unstable oxygen molecules?
A) cellular clock theory
B) free-radical theory
C) telomerase-injection theory
D) hormonal stress theory

If legal definitions of death are modified to mean death of the higher brain but not necessarily the lower brain, which of the following would become a legal practice?
A) assisted suicide of terminally ill patients
B) mercy-killing of patients in chronic and severe pain
C) overdoses of pain medication to comatose patients
D) disconnection from life-support systems of patients with no higher-level brain activity

# 8 QUIZ.doc

# 8 Quizzes
1. Which of the following statements about the sense of personal control is TRUE?

A) A sense of personal control increases as a person ages.
B) A sense of personal control decreases as a person ages.
C) Younger adults feel more of a sense of control over their finances than middle-aged adults.
D) Middle-aged adults feel more of a sense of control over their sex lives than younger adults.

2. Drawing on beliefs, values, and goals to change the meaning of a stressful situation is
known as:

A) self-efficacy.
B) problem-focused coping.
C) meaning-making coping.
D) proactive coping.


In general, the argument that middle adulthood has advantages for women in nonindustrialized
cultures is based on the idea that women in these cultures typically:

A) become wealthier as they age.
B) develop careers outside the home as they age.
C) take on more of the day-to-day chores as they age.
D) gain respect and trust by the community as they age.


Which of the following is a finding of Helson's Mills College Study?

A) Women experience many of the concerns that men experience in midlife.
B) The concerns women feel in midlife indicate they are in midlife crisis.
C) Women who are family-oriented, those who are career-oriented, and those who follow
neither path change about the same throughout adulthood.
D) Women caring for their elderly parents feel an increase in responsibility and self-control.


Which of the following strategies would be MOST helpful in improving memory in middle age?

A) Avoid using vivid imagery to keep from becoming distracted.
B) Use a recall rather than recognition strategy whenever possible.
C) Use an organizational strategy to categorize information to be remembered.
D) Avoid using the information to be remembered so that it does not become confused with
other information.


The _______ life-events approach emphasized the manner in which life events influence an
individual's development depends not only on these events but also on mediating factors.

A) contemporary
B) standard
C) cognitive
D) assimilative


Which of the following statements is supported by Crystal Park's research on chronic stress and
religious experiences?

A) Individuals who are religious initially experience a disruption in their values after the death
of a loved one.
B) Religion can serve as a meaning system through which the bereaved can reframe their loss.
C) Religious individuals fare no better in coping with death than their nonreligious peers.
D) Religious individuals are more likely to be depressed one year after the death of a loved
one than nonreligious individuals.


Which of the following was NOT a finding in Helson's Mills College Study?

A) Women without children who pursued low-level work changed more than family-oriented
B) Between the ages of 27 and the early 40s, there was a shift toward more emotional stability
in all of the groups.
C) The women in all three groups experienced similar psychological change over their adult
D) Awareness of their aging increased from their 30s to their 50s.


According to George Vaillant's longitudinal studies predicting whether one would be "happywell," "sad-sick," or dead at 80, the most important predictor for an enduring and happy marriage

A) generativity in middle age.
B) intimacy in middle age.
C) wealth in middle age.
D) traditional gender role in middle age.


How has the social clock changed over the last few decades?

A) It is truer for women but less true for men.
B) It is less rigid.
C) It is more dependent on socioeconomic status.
D) It is no longer a valid theme.


Roy Baumeister and Kathleen Vohs believe that a meaningful life can be understood in terms of
four main needs. Which of the following is NOT one of those needs?

A) the need for financial security
B) the need for purpose
C) the need for values
D) the need for self-worth


Hardening of the arteries is known as _______.

A) arteriosclerosis
B) osteoporosis
C) cardiosclerosis
D) atherosclerosis


Immigrants may have poorer health because of:

A) lack of financial resources.
B) poor language skills.
C) prejudice and discrimination.
D) All of these.


Why is the social clock an important consideration when understanding development?

A) It informs people how much longer they can expect to live in comparison with others in
their culture.
B) It may differ for different generations and indicate different age ranges for completing
developmental tasks.
C) It informs people of how much social interaction their culture says is necessary for healthy
adult development.
D) It is a useful tool for making comparisons across different generations to see if the
hypothesized developmental course is valid.


Cholesterol comes in two forms _______ and HDL.



Diabetes is to Latinos as __________ is to African Americans.

A) stroke
B) lung cancer
C) heart disease
D) high blood pressure


Which family relationships tend to be the closest in adulthood?

A) father and son
B) mother and son
C) father and daughter
D) mother and daughter


Which of the following BEST summarizes the results of the major longitudinal studies of
personality development?

A) Personality changes considerably throughout the adult years.
B) Personality is well developed by age 30 and rarely changes after that age.
C) The extent of personality change over time is fairly consistent for the population as a
D) Over time, some aspects of personality change, whereas others remain stable.


In the Berkeley Longitudinal Studies, which of the following characteristics was generally
STABLE across time for the adult?

A) nurturance

B) nurturance or hostility
C) relationship control
D) self-confidence


Through _________ generativity, adults develop skills that are passed down to others.

A) biological
B) parental
C) work
D) cultural


Mr. Chang gets very angry when he discovers his newspaper in the mud underneath the bushes
once again. He begins throwing things and yelling loudly. Mr. Chang is experiencing the stress

A) a major life event.
B) a daily hassle.
C) a middle-age development crisis.
D) psychological generativity.


The average adult in middle adulthood __________ height and __________ weight.

A) loses; loses
B) loses; gains
C) gains; gains

D) gains; loses


The kinds of stressors experienced by women and men in middle age are different. For women,
stressors are more ________, whereas for men, they are more ________.

A) often related to family; often related to work
B) often interpersonal; often self-focused
C) often related to generativity; often related to self-image
D) often physical; often emotional


Which of the following is a daily hassle for adults in middle age?

A) concerns about being lonely
B) concerns about meeting high standards
C) concerns about health of a family member
D) wasting time


Allan and Jan are a middle-aged couple going through a divorce. They have both agreed that
divorce is the best solution for them. Which of the following is likely?

A) Both Allen and Jan will see the divorce as a betrayal by the other partner.
B) Both Allen and Jan will have greater difficulty acquiring the material things that they need
at this stage of life.
C) Allen and Jan's children will have greater difficulty adjusting to the divorce than if it had
happened when they were younger.

D) Both Allen and Jan will be better able to use the divorce as a way to make positive changes
in their lives than they could have several years ago.


Which of the following statements regarding grandparents providing care for their grandchildren
is NOT true?

A) At least half of grandparents who move in with their children are immigrants.
B) Taking care of grandchildren has a negative effect on grandparents' health.
C) More grandmothers than grandfathers take care of grandchildren.
D) A majority of grandparents who moved in to take care of grandchildren also contribute to
the family income.


What is the hormonal change that is associated with menopause in women?

A) increase in estrogen
B) decrease in estrogen
C) increase in androgen
D) decrease in androgen


Why is it difficult to identify a midlife crisis in other cultures?

A) Many other cultures do not have a well-defined concept of midlife.
B) Research indicates that such a crisis simply does not take place in most cultures.
C) Many other cultures have no freedom to make changes at midlife.
D) Many other cultures have clear rituals and goals to guide them through midlife, so there is

no need for a crisis.


Bob is 50 years old. If he is typical for his age, what is one of his major health concerns at this
stage of life?

A) weight
B) complexion
C) liver disease
D) optimal exercise


The seventh stage of Erikson's life-span theory is the characteristic of middle age. What name did
Erikson give this stage?

A) intimacy versus isolation
B) integrity versus despair
C) generativity versus stagnation
D) keeping the meaning versus rigidity


During middle age, the visual system begins to change. Which of the following is NOT one of
those changes?

A) Accommodation ability of the eye diminishes.
B) The size of the retinal blind spot diminishes.
C) More illumination is required for visual work.
D) The blood supply to the retina is reduced.


In addition to Viagra, there are two more recent drugs to help with erectile dysfunction. These
drugs, which are reported to have similar side effects, are:

A) Rogaine and Prozac.
B) Levitra and Cialis.
C) Oxycodone and Prozac.
D) Naproxen and OxyContin.


If Susan is a typical American child, who will be her most beloved and important relative in her
extended family?

A) maternal grandmother
B) paternal grandmother
C) maternal grandfather
D) paternal grandfather


What is the leading chronic disorder for women during middle age?

A) arthritis
B) hypertension
C) sinus problems
D) hearing impairment


Mngada is in middle adulthood in her native culture, a nonindustrialized country. According to
what is known about midlife in different cultures, we can expect that Mngada will probably:

A) not experience much of a midlife crisis.
B) experience a midlife crisis that results in serious loss of status and respect by her culture.
C) experience a midlife crisis in much the same way she would if she lived in an industrialized
D) experience a more severe and negative midlife crisis than she would if she lived in an
industrialized country.


In a survey conducted by AARP (2004), the primary reason middle-aged and older men cited for
wanting a divorce was:

A) No obvious problems; they just fell out of love.
B) different values and lifestyles.
C) alcohol or drug abuse.
D) cheating.


Laura is in her 40s. Which of the following of her abilities will decline in the next 10 years?

A) inductive reasoning
B) numerical abilities
C) spatial orientation
D) verbal abilities


What changes in the social clock has taken place in recent years?

A) It is much more rigid now than in the past.
B) Males are much more likely to follow it.
C) It varies more now.
D) It is much less important than cohorts' effects in understanding behavior.


After menopause, most women experience:

A) prolonged depression.
B) a loss of sexuality or sexual desire.
C) an increase in psychological disorders related to menopause.
D) no known negative effects.


Recent research suggests that prayer and religious commitment are __________ ways to deal
with stress.

A) active
B) defensive
C) passive
D) social


When grandchildren live with grandparents, they are usually living with:

A) both grandparents.
B) a single grandmother.
C) a single grandfather.
D) both sets of grandparents.


A reasonable explanation for why 40-year-olds and 60-year-olds show differences in intelligence
test scores is:

A) secular trends.
B) cohort effects.
C) declining IQ with age.
D) biases in IQ testing.


Stage theories of development emphasize ________, whereas individual variation approaches
focus on ________.

A) biology; experience
B) similarities; differences
C) social context; genetic basis
D) variations in development; commonalities in development


In the Gusii culture of Kenya, most middle-aged adults:

A) experience a midlife crisis.
B) do not experience a midlife crisis.
C) experience multiple midlife crises.
D) experience a traumatic midlife crisis.


The empty nest syndrome implies that parents:

A) have multiple interests and activities.
B) are uncomfortable alone with one another.
C) have few interests and activities other than their children.
D) have invested too much time in activities not related to their children.


In intergenerational Mexican American families, who is MOST likely to acculturate?

A) children
B) father
C) mother
D) grandparents


Middle-aged adults tend to focus more on assessment of __________ than young adults do.

A) how much time remains in life
B) time spent in different contexts of life
C) how much time is available for enjoyment
D) how much time is spent in intimate relationships

48. Which of the following would Erik Erikson believe is the midlife crisis faced by most
middle-aged adults?

A) Did I make enough money?
B) Was I the best spouse I could be?
C) Did I make the best use of my education?
D) Did I spend enough valuable time with my children?

49. Sarah, age 55, is experiencing some hot flashes of menopause and wants to mange her
symptoms without taking hormone replacement. Which of the following alternatives could she try
as has research shown it to be effective in reducing the number of hot flashes in middle-aged

A) acupuncture
B) acupressure
C) Reiki
D) Yoga

50. As we age, our level of spirituality:

A) increases.
B) decreases.
C) remains the same.
D) increases, but only in those who have chronic health concerns.

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