Department of History and Military Studies HIST101 American History to 1877 Required Text: Henretta, James A. and David Brody. America: A Concise History, Volume I: To 1877. 4th ed., Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2010. Question 1 (Multiple Choice Worth 1 points) One social change resulting from the Industrial Revolution in early nineteenth-century America was that members of the upper class... came to hold the same cultural and religious values as wage earners in contrast to the elitism that in the eighteenth century had kept the gentry and the “common people” apart. openly distanced themselves by values and lifestyle from wage earners in contrast to the shared cultural and religious values that had united the gentry and ordinary folk in the eighteenth century. became more hypocritical, pretending to share cultural and religious values with wage earners, but actually behaving very differently. tended to claim that they had risen “from rags to riches” and to flaunt their crude tastes and rough manners in contrast to the “gentlemanly” values of the eighteenth-century elites. Question 2 (Multiple Choice Worth 1 points) By the 1820s, more women were becoming teachers because... they were demonstrably more intelligent than male candidates. men scorned teaching as “women's work.” state legislatures were pressured by women's rights advocates into broadening women's employment opportunities. school authorities could pay women less than they paid men. Question 3 (Multiple Choice Worth 1 points) Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes African American marriages and childbearing in the early nineteenth century? Most married slaves who were not separated by sale lived in stable unions and had most of their children while they were together. Most blacks bestowed African names on their children. Most slave children were born outside of a stable relationship. Slaves commonly preferred to marry cousins, something that southern whites regarded as taboo. Question 4 (Multiple Choice Worth 1 points) Planters failed to politically dominate the South because... they lived in a republican society with democratic institutions such as the secret ballot. they did not enfranchise the entire white population of voters. they did not foster party competition. they did not create apportionment based on population. Question 5 (Multiple Choice Worth 1 points) Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the social philosophy of the Shakers? Because they believed men were spiritually weaker than women, the Shakers segregated the sexes to protect men from temptation. Shaker communities excluded African Americans in order to maintain racial purity. Shaker men seeking refuge from the world of capitalism outnumbered Shaker women two to one. Both men and women shared governance of the community. Question 6 (Multiple Choice Worth 1 points) In New York in 1860, the efforts of feminists such as Susan B. Anthony resulted in a law that gave women all of the following rights except... sole guardianship of their children if they became widowed. the right to collect their own wages. the right to vote in local and state elections. the right to own property acquired by trade, business, labors, or services. Question 7 (Multiple Choice Worth 1 points) The rapid growth of western cities such as Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, and New Orleans resulted from their... location at points where goods had to be transferred from one mode of transport to another. location on the fall line. proximity to abundant coal supplies. success in surpassing rival towns in their regions in the competition for trade monopolies. Question 8 (Multiple Choice Worth 1 points) In her novel Uncle Tom's Cabin, Harriet Beecher Stowe... promoted African colonization as the best solution to the evils of slavery. urged women to leave any church that did not preach against slavery. urged women to join abolitionist societies. depicted slavery as a destroyer of slave families and a degrader of slave women. Question 9 (Multiple Choice Worth 1 points) Which of the following best explains the success of early nineteenth-century temperance crusaders in reducing Americans' consumption of intoxicating liquor? Prohibition laws that reformers succeeded in getting passed. High liquor taxes that reformers persuaded the federal government to impose. Dramatic and entertaining temperance lecturers, combined with a growing realization among Americans that cultivating sobriety and hard work could have material rewards. Voluntary reductions in the production of intoxicating liquor by brewers and distillers, combined with steeply rising prices of available liquor. Question 10 (Multiple Choice Worth 1 points) Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes Andrew Jackson's intentions toward Native Americans? He planned to encourage missionaries to convert the tribes east of the Mississippi River to Christianity and white culture. He intended to force Native Americans to comply with federal treaties. He sought better relations with the “civilized” Indians of the Old Southwest, encouraging them to continue their adaptation to white ways. He meant to remove all Native Americans east of the Mississippi, even those who had adapted to white society. Question 11 (Multiple Choice Worth 1 points) As president, John Quincy Adams supported... a national bank to promote a uniform currency and to control credit. a strict limit on the powers of the federal government. halting further “internal improvements” by the federal government. lower tariffs. Question 12 (Multiple Choice Worth 1 points) A more unified African American culture began to emerge in the early decades of the nineteenth century because... the Gullah dialect spread to the new slave territories in the Old Southwest. the rapid transfer of slaves from other regions into the Lower Mississippi Valley significantly minimized cultural differences. blacks rejuvenated African customs as the transatlantic slave trade ceased. most slaves were united by their traditional religion, which persisted despite the efforts of white Christians to convert them. Question 13 (Multiple Choice Worth 1 points) The "gag rule," passed by the House of Representatives in 1836... suspended the right of habeas corpus for any abolitionist speaker arrested for violating anti-abolitionist laws. stipulated that antislavery petitions received by the House would be automatically tabled. was imposed by northern congressmen to silence southern politicians whose filibustering prevented antislavery proposals from being considered. made it a federal crime to distribute abolitionist tracts in any state or territory that prohibited such delivery. Question 14 (Multiple Choice Worth 1 points) Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the American political system before the 1820s? It was democratic. Local notables dominated it by managing local elections through devices such as loaning money and treating workers or tenants to drinks. Political parties, although not mentioned in the U.S. Constitution, were legalized and regulated by the provisions of most state constitutions. Pressure to make politics more responsive to popular interests arose first in New England and New York State. Question 15 (Multiple Choice Worth 1 points) The most outstanding contribution of American mechanics to the Industrial Revolution was the development of... machines capable of making parts for other machines. the steam engine. cotton-spinning machines. the flying shuttle loom. Question 16 (Multiple Choice Worth 1 points) When the Bank of the United States' charter expired in 1811... Congress chartered the Second Bank of the United States later that same year. Federalists urged that the bank be dissolved on the grounds that it was unconstitutional. President James Madison began to invest his own funds in the Bank of the United States. it was not renewed. Question 17 (Multiple Choice Worth 1 points) The Missouri Compromise of 1820... resulted from the conciliatory efforts of Congressman James Tallmadge of New York. provided for Maine to enter the Union as a free state in 1820, and Missouri to enter as a slave state the following year. prohibited slavery in the Louisiana Territory south of latitude 36°30´. convinced the aged and retired Thomas Jefferson that the peaceful extinction of slavery by mutual agreement was now in sight. Question 18 (Multiple Choice Worth 1 points) Employers sued many unions in the 1830s, charging the illegality of which of the following practices? Workday limitation agreements. Closed-shop agreements. Sabotage and slowdown. Price-fixing agreements. Question 19 (Multiple Choice Worth 1 points) During and after the Revolution, why did the emancipation of slaves proceed very slowly in the northern states? The northern states gave priority to slaveholders' property rights so that emancipation often was spaced out over several slave generations. Very few northerners saw any contradiction between freedom for themselves and slavery for African Americans. Slaves were threatening violence in the northern states, causing many whites to retreat from their earlier willingness to support rapid emancipation. Economically, slavery was becoming more viable and profitable in the North in the 1770s and early 1780s. Question 20 (Multiple Choice Worth 1 points) The domestic slave trade affected the African American family unit before 1865 by... destroying the sense of family. separating adults but not children from their families. destroying seventy-five percent of black marriages. separating family members through sale and trade. Question 21 (Multiple Choice Worth 1 points) Free blacks in the South... lived mostly in the Lower South. generally acknowledged unity with the enslaved population. won the right to trial by jury in criminal cases. were able to travel fairly widely without identification papers. Question 22 (Multiple Choice Worth 1 points) By the 1830s, most laborers in the urban northeast lived in... barracks provided by factory owners. rural areas and rode trains to their jobs in the cities. church-sponsored charity houses. crowded boardinghouses and tiny apartments. Question 23 (Multiple Choice Worth 1 points) The most important function of the Second Bank of the United States was to... make a profit for the federal government through judicious loans to entrepreneurs. keep the economy in equilibrium by raising or lowering interest rates in response to changes in the capitalist business cycle. stabilize the nation's money supply by forcing state banks to periodically convert their paper money into gold and silver coin. serve as a clearinghouse for foreign investments and currency. Question 24 (Multiple Choice Worth 1 points) Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the new urban culture of large U.S. cities such as New York during the early 1800s? Thousands of young men and women who migrated from urban areas created the new urban culture. Sex and dress were marginal to the new urban culture. Young men and women easily found high-paying jobs in cities. Popular entertainment, in particularly minstrelsy, was an important aspect of new urban culture. Question 25 (Multiple Choice Worth 1 points) One reason women took charge of religious and charitable enterprises during and after the Second Great Awakening was because... their husbands ordered them to do so. they were excluded from other public roles. they had more talent for church administration than men. they were naturally more pious and spiritual than men. Essay answers need to be at least three paragraphs long. Each paragraph needs to be a minimum of three to five (3-5) complete sentences. The first paragraph would introduce the topic and state the student’s position / answer to the question. The next two paragraphs would support the first paragraph. In each paragraph, the first sentence should be a concise statement that addresses the question. There should be specific examples (recommendation is at least three) used in the paragraph to support the answer and illustrate the student’s understanding of the question. It is essential for students to provide citations for their work. Citations must adhere to the Chicago Style format. Question 26 (Essay Worth 5 points) Why did women's issues suddenly become so prominent in American culture? Question 27 (Essay Worth 5 points) How did plantation crops and the slavery system change between 1800 and 1860? Why did these changes occur? Question 28 (Essay Worth 5 points) Did the era of reform increase or decrease the American commitment to, and practice of, liberty? In what ways? Question 29 (Essay Worth 5 points) How would you explain the large and expanding domestic trade in slaves between 1800 and 1860? What combination of factors produced this result? Question 30 (Essay Worth 5 points) Did the Compromise of 1850 fail? Or would it have succeeded if the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 had either not been enacted or contained different provisions? Question 31 (Essay Worth 5 points) Which government - the Union or the Confederacy - imposed greater military and economic burdens on its citizens? How successful were their respective strategies? Question 32 (Essay Worth 5 points) Do you think that the failure of Reconstruction was primarily a failure of leadership? Or to put it more concretely, do you think that the outcome might have been different had Lincoln lived or had chosen a different vice president or had Andrew Johnson not been followed by Ulysses S. Grant? Explain your answer.
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