A study conducted in two Bangladesh areas—one more economically developed, the other less developed—found that more autonomous women living in the less developed area were more likely to report being beaten than the women in the more developed area. This finding led the authors of the study to conclude
areas that are more urbanized tend to accept women's independence due to changed social norms.
less developed areas find women's independence threatening to the social order.
a woman's autonomy must be both accepted and commonplace before it begins to reduce the risk of domestic violence.
all of the above
Members of which of the following groups are most likely to commit acts of domestic violence?
men with college degrees
men with graduate degrees
Of the substantiated elder abuse cases in 2004, the most prevalent type was
emotional or psychological abuse
Among college peers, those most likely to be both victims or aggressors in sexual aggression are
acquainted with each other
did not have the same definition as to what "no" meant when refusing to engage in sex
using alcohol and drugs.
all of the above
From the frustration-aggression perspective of domestic violence, violent behavior is viewed as
a way of dominating women.
an emotional outburst of displaced anger.
a trade-off between what perpetrators desire and can get away with.
a way of making a political statement.
A 2004 study found that the elderly were most likely to be abused by
a non-related caretaker.
The teacher of a required course on how to handle conflict and anger in a relationship would most likely be using a __________ approach to domestic violence.
If a domestic violence advocate were operating under the political model, he/she would be most apt to support which of the following?
increasing women's pay to a level equal to men's
counseling couples on how to control their anger
policies aimed at preserving the family unit
providing mental health services to men who abuse their partner
Female victims of violence in the United States face the highest risk of physical injury
from someone they know well.
when they are pregnant.
if they are disabled in any way.
The feminist movement in the United States had as its fundamental goal on the issue of domestic violence
to treat the physical injuries of the victims.
to treat the personal problems of the perpetrator.
to remove the social supports for male violence in our culture.
to treat the emotional trauma of the victims.
Evidence of the fact that domestic violence is not solely a contemporary social problem is suggested by the passing of the first law against wife beating in the Western world by citizens of
the British Parliament.
the Virginia Commonwealth.
the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
the French Republic.
Of the three types of relationships—dating, married, and cohabiting relationships—which has the highest incidence of physical assault?
all the same
Child abuse is least likely to occur in what type of family?
families in which both parents are employed
a family in which the husband is unemployed
"Intimate terrorism" is characterized by
it escalates into serious violence and injury
it is motivated by control
most perpetrators are men
all of the above
Most reports of rape in surveys of date rape reveal that rape was committed
by strangers to the victims.
by college students.
while the victim was out late at night.
by someone the victim knew.
Much attention to domestic violence followed the trial and acquittal of O. J. Simpson, who was accused of murdering his former wife, Nicole. Whether or not we think Simpson guilty, one of the positive results of his trial for domestic violence victims has been
legislation to prevent stalking.
legislation to assist victims in leaving their situations.
legislation to provide job training to victims.
legislation to arrest perpetrators whether or not the victim presses charges.
Advocates of the medical model of domestic violence perceive the solution to domestic violence to be
passage of protective laws.
intervention by health and social welfare professionals.
a societal change of attitude toward women's problems.
completion of conflict resolution courses.
Which factor was the most likely explanation of the great rise in divorce for the 1960s and 1970s?
culture was more individualistic
more women working outside the home
the law became more permissive
a combination of all these factors
Which of the following individual risk factors increases the likelihood of divorce?
young age at marriage
being African American
all of the above
In the era of restricted divorce, countries with a predominant __________ religion were more liberal about divorce.
Which of the following is not a characteristic of the current legal system within which U.S. couples obtain divorce?
It routinely grants alimony to wives whose job skills are limited.
It orders husbands to pay only modest levels of child support.
It expects divorced mothers to become self-supportive soon after a divorce.
It assumes an upper-middle-class dual-career divorcing couple, who have equal skills and incomes.
Joint legal custody between divorcing parents is primarily valuable as _____ in contemporary U.S. society.
a symbol of the father's continuing responsibility for his children
a symbol of the mother's continuing responsibility for her children
a means of men's retaining active, regular involvement in their children's lives
a means of women's retaining active, regular involvement in their children's lives
Of the two effects studied by sociologists and others, research indicates that in terms of contributing to the chances of divorce, the _____ might have a more powerful effect.
human capital effect
The arrangement whereby divorced parents coordinate their activities and cooperate with each other in raising their children is commonly referred to as
joint legal custody
The typical waiting period for a divorce in the United States is _____, which is _____ than most other Western countries.
one year or less; lower
two years; higher
five years; higher
three years; lower
One of the most consistent findings of the research into the effects of divorce is that
mothers are often bitter and emotionally distraught.
children recover rather quickly.
fathers after divorce are not as involved with their children as they may have been before.
fathers resent paying alimony.
All the following included official reasons for divorce in the era of divorce tolerance, except
On the basis of the most recently available information, the racial-ethnic group with the highest divorce rate in the United States is
In 2007, how many married women obtained a divorce?
Historically, annulments were only granted in the following case(s)
marriage between close relatives.
if spouses had not engaged in sexual intercourse.
both a and c
Of the following couples, which one is the least likely to divorce in contemporary U.S. society?
couples with the same religious background
couples where the wife is much older than the husband
couples who married as teenagers
couples whose ages are far apart
Couples who have cohabited prior to marriage have a _____ likelihood of divorcing compared to couples who did not live together prior to marriage.
What is the primary reason why couples who cohabit prior to marriage have a higher chance of getting divorced?
less committed to each other
weaker commitment to the institution of marriage
they love each other less
none of the above
Black women in the United States have a higher likelihood of separating from their husbands and are __________ to turn these separations into divorces than other women.
none of the above
The stepparent who is in a stable stepfamily is likely to
show warmth toward and support of the stepchildren
not discipline the stepchildren
support the biological parent's parenting style
all of the above
The finding that a teenage first marriage (and divorce later) also accounts for a later remarriage and another divorce would support which of the following theories or perspectives on remarriage?
institutionalization of remarriage
non-institutionalization of remarriage and divorce
Created kinship differs from blood kinship in that:
it is usually a weaker relationship.
it is a relationship that requires more work and maintenance.
it is usually a stronger relationship.
the two seldom differ.
Stepfamilies are more likely to have a _________ kinship with the members of that family
Remarriage rates tend to be lower for:
the wealthy than the poor.
the young than the old.
men than for women.
the poor than the non-poor.
With the increasing numbers of remarriages and subsequent stepfamilies, the practices of the court system in the United States have been
standing firm about the rights of biological parents.
evolving slowly toward recognizing some rights and responsibilities of stepparents.
evolving slowly about the rights of biological parents.
standing firm about the rights of stepparents.
In many court cases where biological parents have contested the right of stepparents to raise children living with them, __________ have won.
the biological parents
The position a stepparent attains in a family depends on:
the effort he or she puts into developing a close relationship with the stepchildren.
his or her relationship with the non-custodial parent.
a signed pre-nuptial agreements.
the "hands on" care of his or her children.
Cherlin describes life in step families as a(n) ______ social institution.
Of the types of kinship ties, which is more likely to change over the course of a person's lifetime?
assigned kinship ties
created kinship ties
grandparent kinship ties
Divorced people in the 2000s in the United States are not less inclined to live with someone, but they seem to have:
substituted cohabitation for remarriage.
delayed remarrying until they have been divorced for many years.
become reluctant to live with those who have children.
all of the above
Several factors increase the likelihood of a stepparent's being able to act toward a child much as a biological parent would. Which of the following would not be one of these factors?
satisfying relationship between biological parent and stepparent
within the home
preschool age of children when stepfamily is formed
teenage children when stepfamily is formed
significant interaction between child and nonresident biological parent
The stepparent most likely to integrate into the stepfamily would be one called the
The original Old English prefix "step" as in stepmother signified a relationship caused by
Of those who remarry after divorce, women are __________ likely to remarry than men, on the basis of current statistics.
Which of the following racial-ethnic group members are most likely, on average, to remarry after a divorce?
In all discussions of stepfamilies and step-relatives it is obvious, on the basis of current research findings, that the primary ingredient in making a stepfamily "work" in ways similar to the common conjugal unit is that someone
does the work of kinship.
adopts the children from a first marriage.
helps support the new family.
A conservative politician would disagree with the following statement
The family should be left alone by the government
The labor market should reflect the family wage system
There should be legalization of partial-birth abortion
A conservative would agree with all these statements
The Social Security Act of 1935 followed the division of labor implicit in the family wage system and provided pensions primarily to
all of the above.
In the earlier history of our country and for many years afterward, the prevailing view in the United States was that government should not intervene in family affairs; this changed dramatically after _____.
The Great Depression
the 1970s recession due to OPEC changes in oil prices
Most government involvement in family support is based on a concern about
keeping employees happy (and working).
dependents, especially children and the elderly.
distributing excess monies fairly.
Of the following, which is the least common way that the government subsidizes a college-educated working couple?
giving their elderly parents Social Security
by allowing them a tax deduction on their home mortgage interest rates
by collecting unemployment when one spouse is laid off
receiving income tax credits for having children
The 1973 Supreme Court decision _______ ruled that women had the constitutional right to terminate a pregnancy by abortion.
Roe v. Wade
Brown v. Wade
Schafly v. Schroeder
Roe v. Schroeder
The Social Security Act, which is becoming more and more controversial in the 1990s, was initiated in the _____ and was originally intended to help _____.
1940s; unemployed men.
1950s; homemaker-breadwinner families.
1930s; widowed women with children.
1960s; the frail and elderly.
___________ advocates maintain that the rise of the dual-earner couple has created a harried lifestyle that should be eased for the sake of parents and children.
A fundamental premise of the original Social Security System was that the recipients:
would also be receiving other forms of assistance.
would never really need it.
would be primarily women.
would be primarily men.
PWORA is different than AFDC in the respect that
financial benefits were limited
there were time limits
adults were required to worth within 24 months after they receive assistance
all of the above
In 2006, President Bush sign a Marriage Promotion bill to extend welfare reform legislation
to include all the following except
relationship and parenting skills training
public advertising on the value of marriage
child care funds for working married parents
high school classes on marriage and budgeting
Proportionate to their percentage of the total U.S. population, (for example, whites make up approximately 85% of the total U.S. population at present), _____ are most likely to be using cash assistance programs offered by the U.S. government.
_____ American families, including middle class families, receive ________ government assistance:
The major drop in TANF caseloads the last few years is not caused by
new rules of welfare reform.
the strong economy.
wage support such as the Earned Income Tax Credit.
fewer single-parent families.
In the United States, two kinds of conflicts that underlie much of the controversy and discussion of major public issues concerning the family include
men's dominance and children's care.
women's autonomy and "natural" roles.
women's employment and childhood poverty.
women's dominance and children's care.
The family wage system was based on the concept that women's and men's roles in the family split between:
wage earners; homemakers
young teenagers; mature mothers
widowed mothers; divorcees
homemakers; wage earners
Until the depression in the United States, the government felt that it __________ (in) family affairs.
should not intervene
be completely responsible for
should provide moderate assistance
support certain aspects of
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