a and b
_____ 2is information acquired by direct observation and measurement using systematic scientific methods.
3What is the process of objectively evaluating, comparing, analyzing, and synthesizing information?
4 What are the goals of psychology?
explore the conscious and unconscious functions of the human mind
understand, compare, and analyze human behavior
improve psychological well-being in all individuals from conception to death
describe, explain, predict, and change behavior
5 Because Timothy was laughed at by his second grade peers, he was reluctant to speak out in class. This is a demonstration of which goal of psychology?
Improving psychological well-being
exploring conscious vs unconscious behaviors
6 The belief that the unconscious mind has an influence on one's behavior is part of what theory of personality?
7 Functionalism made an important contribution to the science of psychology because it ____________________.
explained why different individuals experience stimuli differently.
drew the line between branches of psychology so each had its own function.
expanded the scope of psychology to consider such topics as emotion and observable behavior.
specified precisely the scope of psychology as dealing with mental processes.
8 The clinician who was fascinated by the ability of the unconscious mind to influence the body was ________________.
B. F. Skinner
9Structuralism made an important contribution to the science of psychology because it ________________.
established a model for the scientific study of mental processes.
showed how separate thoughts combined to form an idea.
explained why individuals experience stimuli differently.
highlighted why different scientific methods are needed to study children and animals versus studying adult humans
The psychological perspective that emphasizes objective, observable environmental influences of overt behavior is called the __________________________.
Dr. Watson, from the _____ school of psychology, focused on objective, observable behavior rather than on the unconscious.
The psychological perspective that emerged in the 1950s that stressed free will and self-actualization was the __________ perspective.
Cognitive psychology focuses on ____.
conflict within the conscious mind.
the positive, creative, growth-seeking potential of human nature.
mental processes, language, and perception.
complex biochemical events involved in information processing.
The first African American to earn a Ph.D. in psychology was _____.
If a graduate student is studying the influence of biology (e.g., genetics, brain) on behavior and mental processes, what field of psychology would they be pursuing?
How many chromosomes is the human body composed of?
. _____ are threadlike strands of DNA molecules that carry genetic information.
D) Heredity cells
If a trait is recessive, this means it will take _____ gene(s) for the trait to manifest itself in one's offspring.
3 or more recessive1 dominant
The tips of the branches of the axon are called _____.
What part(s) of the cell receive incoming messages?
axons and cell body
dendrites and cell body
A synaptic gap is _____.
the gap between the brain and the skill that contains cerebrospinal fluid
the tiny opening between the sending and receiving neuron
the vesicle that contains neurotransmitters
the place where neurotransmitters exchange ionic molecules
When there is leftover neurotransmitter in the synaptic gap, which of the following occurs?
The leftover neurotransmitter stays in the gap
The process of reuptake occurs
The receiving neuron fires for a longer period of time
The sending neuron fires for a long period of time.
High levels of _______________ are associated with states of mania.
One of the hormones released by the adrenal glands in response to stress is ________.
. _____ are the immature, precursors that give birth to new specialized cells.
Why did the popular belief that emotions and thoughts affect health decline in the late 1800s?
a. Antibiotics were discovered that cured diseases.
b Some diseases were found to cause mental symptoms.
c. Scientists discovered biological causes for infectious disease.
d. Drug companies made money on drugs so endorsed physical causes of disease
27. “Stress” is defined as _______.
a. environmental factors that result in anxiety
b. the physiological reaction of the body to environmental factors
c a negative emotion resulting from environmental unpleasantness
d. the nonspecific response of the body to any demand made on it
28. After a minor car accident, you experience sweaty palms, rapid breathing, and a racing heart. In this situation, _____ is the stressor, and _____ is the stress.
a. your racing heart; the accident
b. the accident; your physical reaction
c. our sweaty palms; your rapid breathing
d. the accident; the accident
29. The total absence of stress would ultimately lead to _______.
a a state of deep relaxation
c lifetime happiness
30. An idealistic person exposed to chronic stress in an emotionally draining job, such as an air traffic controller, may experience _____________ as a result of this situation.
d. work hassles
31. The most difficult conflict to resolve is usually the _____ conflict.
32. Stratton's experiment involving wearing special lenses illustrated that _______.
a. sensations can be selectively ignored
b. perceptions can be adapted by retraining the brain
c. perceptions are discretionary
d.sensations are more salient than perceptions
33. The frontal lobes are responsible for processing _____________.
a visual information
b auditory information
c kinesthetic information
d information about muscle movements
34. Myopia (or nearsightedness) results from images focused _____.
a. on the fove
b. in front of the retina
c. behind the retina
d. on the rods
35. Conduction deafness is also known as _________.
a inner ear deafness
b cochlear deafness
c nerve deafness
d middle ear deafness
36. When our perceptions don't agree with our sensations, a(n) _______ results.
D) sensory enigma