1. True/False?The sociological perspective sees crime as encompassing any harmful acts.
2. True/False?There is a growing tendency to apply the term criminologist to anyone who works
in the criminal justice field.
3. True/False?Crime in the United States has been increasing for the past decade.
4. The psychological perspective is also known as the __________ perspective.
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5. Societies with shared values, norms and belief systems are best described by the __________
6. A __________ specializes in the collection and examination of the physical evidence of crime.
7. The social problems perspective is characteristic of what social scientists term a __________
8. The social responsibility perspective is also known as the __________ responsibility
9. The concept that crime is defined in terms of the power structures that exist in society
exemplifies the __________ perspective.
10. The belief that crime is an antisocial act of such a nature that repression is necessary to
preserve the existing system of society is the basis of the __________ perspective on crime.
11. Because you were late for this exam, you exceeded the speed limit by about 10 to 15 miles
per hour while driving to class. This is an example of behavior that is
a. deviant but not criminal.
b. criminal but not deviant.
c. both deviant and criminal.
d. neither deviant nor criminal.
12. Which of the following crime reduction or prevention strategies is most characteristic of the
social problems perspective?
a. A government-funded initiative to enhance educational opportunities among low-income
b. A move to broaden police powers by increasing the number of exceptions to the Exclusionary
c. Rewriting state statutes to increase the severity of punishment for violent offenders, such as
d. All of the above
13. A victim may actively contribute to his/her own victimization through the appearance of
14. According to the UCR definition, the use of force to gain entry is essential to classify an
offense as burglary.
15. Self-report surveys provide information on the dark figure of crime.
16. Fear of future victimization is one of the most common reasons for not reporting a violent
victimization to the police.
17. When one variable increases in value as another decreases, a negative correlation exists.
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18. The English economist __________ described a worldwide future of warfare, crime, and
19. According to the NCVS, approximately __________ of all violent crimes are reported to the
20. A __________ robbery refers to a robbery where the offender was unarmed.
21. ________ are more likely to report violent victimizations to the police.
22. The arrest rate for murder among African Americans is __________ times that for whites.
23. The thermic law of crime was developed by
a. André Michel Guerry.
b. Cesare Beccaria.
c. Adolphe Quételet.
d. Thomas Robert Malthus.
24. UCR Part I offenses are subdivided into two categories:
a. felonies and misdemeanors.
b. violent crimes and personal crimes.
c. violent personal crimes and property crimes.
d. violent personal crimes and index crimes.
25. Official crime rates in the United States are __________; correctional populations are
a. decreasing; increasing
b. decreasing; decreasing
c. increasing, decreasing
d. increasing; increasing
26. Robbery that occurs in a public place, generally out of doors, is known as __________
27 According to UCR larceny statistics, most items reported stolen were taken from
b. coin-operated machines.
c. motor vehicles.
d. private residences.
28. A hypothesis cannot be tested until the concepts are operationalized.
29. In a one-group pretest–post-test design, the post-test involves observations made prior to the
30. A researcher using the participant as observer strategy does not have to be concerned about
influencing the behavior of the group being observed.
31. Criminological research findings are frequently at odds with public sentiment.
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32. In __________ research, the research is working toward some practical goal.
33. A(n) __________ is something that is taken to be true for the purpose of argument or
34. __________ involves events that occur between the first and second observations and that
may affect measurement.
35. The problem of __________ occurs when subjects are allowed to decide whether they want
to participate in a study.
36. A case study focusing on a single subject is known as a __________.
37. __________ is the process of turning a simple hypothesis into one that is testable.
a. Theory building
b. Variable development
d. Hypothesis testing
38. Which of the following is not a data-gathering strategy?
a. Controlled experiment
b. Participant observation
c. Life history
d. Secondary analysis
39. __________ means that when the same conditions exist, the same results can be expected to
b. Internal validity
40. Techniques that produce measurable results that can be analyzed statistically are
a. tests of significance.
b. qualitative methods.
d. quantitative methods.
41. Which of the following is not a critical ethical issue to researchers?
a. Data confidentiality
b. The protection of human subjects
c. Disclosure of research methods
d. Application of results to social policy
42. John Locke focused primarily on the responsibilities of individuals to the societies of which
they are a part.
43. Beccaria emphasized punishing offenders based on an assessment of their criminal intent.
44. Hard determinism suggests that crime results from forces within the control of the individual.
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45. Of the terms used by Sumner, only __________ have been codified into formal strictures.
46. The concept of _________ suggests that certain immutable laws are fundamental to human
nature and can be ascertained through reason.
47. _________ theory uses cost-benefit analysis.
48. Property identification falls into the _______ category of situational crime control.
49. Situational choice theory suggests that crime is a matter of both motivation and __________.
50. __________ uses changes in legislation or sentencing patterns to remove from society entire
groups of individuals judged to be dangerous.
51. Which of the following statements would probably not be made by an adherent of the
a. I believe that punishment is necessary to deter criminals from committing more crimes.
b. I believe that people have certain basic rights and that if the government infringes upon these
rights, it should be dissolved.
c. I believe that people’s behavior is determined by pain and pleasure.
d. I believe that forces beyond a person’s control can affect his or her choice of criminal or
52. __________ punishment includes ordering an offender to make restitution.
53. According to routine activities theory, which of the following is not necessary for a crime to
a. The presence of a motivated offender
b. The absence of a capable guardian
c. The presence of a defensible victim
d. The presence of a suitable target
54. Which of the following techniques falls into the situational crime control category of
reducing the rewards?
a. Formal surveillance
b. Deflecting offenders
c. Removing targets
d. Facilitating compliance
55. Those who advocate __________see the primary utility of punishment as revenge.
56. The Biblical injunction of “an eye for an eye” represents the concept of
a. free will.
b. just deserts.
57. The criminal courts do not agree that excess sugar consumption may be linked to crime.
58. PMS as a defense has been accepted by the courts.
59. The proportion of homicides committed by men versus women has remained fairly constant
for the last 40 years.
60. It is possible for researchers conducting twin studies to make errors when classifying a pair
of twins as monozygotic or dizygotic.
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61. __________ theories focus on an offender’s body type.
62. Men whose brains lack sufficient amounts of __________ may feel frustration more acutely
and respond to frustrating circumstances more aggressively.
63. __________ criminology focuses on the idea that the root causes of criminality are passed
from one generation to the next in the form of “bad genes.”
64. The concept of __________ in sociobiology is used to explain conflict between humans.
65. According to Wilson and Herrnstein, criminality is consistently associated with __________
66. __________ is a concept used by Cesare Lombroso to suggest that criminality is the result of
primitive urges that survived the evolutionary process.
67. According to Cesare Lombroso’s categorization of offenders, occasional criminals were
d. criminals incited by passion.
68. Which of Sheldon’s body types is most likely to be relaxed and sociable?
a. An ectomorph
b. An endomorph
c. A mesomorph
d. A cyclothmorph
69. Which of the following foods has not been implicated in the production of criminal violence?
c. Processed foods
d. All of the above may possibly trigger antisocial behavior.
70. The relationship between testosterone and aggressive behavior in young males appears to be
b. the social environment
d. none of the above
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