1. Why is it difficult to identify a midlife crisis in other cultures?
Which of the following statements about the sense of personal control is TRUE?
A) A sense of personal control increases as a person ages.
B) A sense of personal control decreases as a person ages.
C) Younger adults feel more of a sense of control over their finances than middle-aged adults.
D) Middle-aged adults feel more of a sense of control over their sex lives than younger adults.
Drawing on beliefs, values, and goals to change the meaning of a stressful situation is known as:
B) problem-focused coping.
C) meaning-making coping.
D) proactive coping.
In general, the argument that middle adulthood has advantages for women in nonindustrialized cultures is based on the idea that women in these cultures typically:
A) become wealthier as they age.
B) develop careers outside the home as they age.
C) take on more of the day-to-day chores as they age.
D) gain respect and trust by the community as they age.
Which of the following is a finding of Helson's Mills College Study?
A) Women experience many of the concerns that men experience in midlife.
B) The concerns women feel in midlife indicate they are in midlife crisis.
C) Women who are family-oriented, those who are career-oriented, and those who follow neither path change about the same throughout adulthood.
D) Women caring for their elderly parents feel an increase in responsibility and self-control.
Which of the following strategies would be MOST helpful in improving memory in middle age?
A) Avoid using vivid imagery to keep from becoming distracted.
B) Use a recall rather than recognition strategy whenever possible.
C) Use an organizational strategy to categorize information to be remembered.
D) Avoid using the information to be remembered so that it does not become confused with other information.
The _______ life-events approach emphasized the manner in which life events influence an individual's development depends not only on these events but also on mediating factors.
Which of the following statements is supported by Crystal Park's research on chronic stress and religious experiences?
A) Individuals who are religious initially experience a disruption in their values after the death of a loved one.
B) Religion can serve as a meaning system through which the bereaved can reframe their loss.
C) Religious individuals fare no better in coping with death than their nonreligious peers.
D) Religious individuals are more likely to be depressed one year after the death of a loved one than nonreligious individuals.
Which of the following was NOT a finding in Helson's Mills College Study?
A) Women without children who pursued low-level work changed more than family-oriented women.
B) Between the ages of 27 and the early 40s, there was a shift toward more emotional stability in all of the groups.
C) The women in all three groups experienced similar psychological change over their adult years.
D) Awareness of their aging increased from their 30s to their 50s.
According to George Vaillant's longitudinal studies predicting whether one would be "happy-well," "sad-sick," or dead at 80, the most important predictor for an enduring and happy marriage was:
A) generativity in middle age.
B) intimacy in middle age.
C) wealth in middle age.
D) traditional gender role in middle age.
How has the social clock changed over the last few decades?
A) It is truer for women but less true for men.
B) It is less rigid.
C) It is more dependent on socioeconomic status.
D) It is no longer a valid theme.
Roy Baumeister and Kathleen Vohs believe that a meaningful life can be understood in terms of four main needs. Which of the following is NOT one of those needs?
A) the need for financial security
B) the need for purpose
C) the need for values
D) the need for self-worth
Hardening of the arteries is known as _______.
Immigrants may have poorer health because of:
A) lack of financial resources.
B) poor language skills.
C) prejudice and discrimination.
D) All of these.
Why is the social clock an important consideration when understanding development?
A) It informs people how much longer they can expect to live in comparison with others in their culture.
B) It may differ for different generations and indicate different age ranges for completing developmental tasks.
C) It informs people of how much social interaction their culture says is necessary for healthy adult development.
D) It is a useful tool for making comparisons across different generations to see if the hypothesized developmental course is valid.
Cholesterol comes in two forms _______ and HDL.
Diabetes is to Latinos as __________ is to African Americans.
B) lung cancer
C) heart disease
D) high blood pressure
Which family relationships tend to be the closest in adulthood?
A) father and son
B) mother and son
C) father and daughter
D) mother and daughter
Which of the following BEST summarizes the results of the major longitudinal studies of personality development?
A) Personality changes considerably throughout the adult years.
B) Personality is well developed by age 30 and rarely changes after that age.
C) The extent of personality change over time is fairly consistent for the population as a whole.
D) Over time, some aspects of personality change, whereas others remain stable.
In the Berkeley Longitudinal Studies, which of the following characteristics was generally STABLE across time for the adult?
B) nurturance or hostility
C) relationship control
Through _________ generativity, adults develop skills that are passed down to others.
Mr. Chang gets very angry when he discovers his newspaper in the mud underneath the bushes once again. He begins throwing things and yelling loudly. Mr. Chang is experiencing the stress of:
A) a major life event.
B) a daily hassle.
C) a middle-age development crisis.
D) psychological generativity.
The average adult in middle adulthood __________ height and __________ weight.
A) loses; loses
B) loses; gains
C) gains; gains
D) gains; loses
The kinds of stressors experienced by women and men in middle age are different. For women, stressors are more ________, whereas for men, they are more ________.
A) often related to family; often related to work
B) often interpersonal; often self-focused
C) often related to generativity; often related to self-image
D) often physical; often emotional
Which of the following is a daily hassle for adults in middle age?
A) concerns about being lonely
B) concerns about meeting high standards
C) concerns about health of a family member
D) wasting time
Allan and Jan are a middle-aged couple going through a divorce. They have both agreed that divorce is the best solution for them. Which of the following is likely?
A) Both Allen and Jan will see the divorce as a betrayal by the other partner.
B) Both Allen and Jan will have greater difficulty acquiring the material things that they need at this stage of life.
C) Allen and Jan's children will have greater difficulty adjusting to the divorce than if it had happened when they were younger.
D) Both Allen and Jan will be better able to use the divorce as a way to make positive changes in their lives than they could have several years ago.
Which of the following statements regarding grandparents providing care for their grandchildren is NOT true?
A) At least half of grandparents who move in with their children are immigrants.
B) Taking care of grandchildren has a negative effect on grandparents' health.
C) More grandmothers than grandfathers take care of grandchildren.
D) A majority of grandparents who moved in to take care of grandchildren also contribute to the family income.
What is the hormonal change that is associated with menopause in women?
A) increase in estrogen
B) decrease in estrogen
C) increase in androgen
D) decrease in androgen
Why is it difficult to identify a midlife crisis in other cultures?
A) Many other cultures do not have a well-defined concept of midlife.
B) Research indicates that such a crisis simply does not take place in most cultures.
C) Many other cultures have no freedom to make changes at midlife.
D) Many other cultures have clear rituals and goals to guide them through midlife, so there is no need for a crisis.
Bob is 50 years old. If he is typical for his age, what is one of his major health concerns at this stage of life?
C) liver disease
D) optimal exercise
The seventh stage of Erikson's life-span theory is the characteristic of middle age. What name did Erikson give this stage?
A) intimacy versus isolation
B) integrity versus despair
C) generativity versus stagnation
D) keeping the meaning versus rigidity
During middle age, the visual system begins to change. Which of the following is NOT one of those changes?
A) Accommodation ability of the eye diminishes.
B) The size of the retinal blind spot diminishes.
C) More illumination is required for visual work.
D) The blood supply to the retina is reduced.
In addition to Viagra, there are two more recent drugs to help with erectile dysfunction. These drugs, which are reported to have similar side effects, are:
A) Rogaine and Prozac.
B) Levitra and Cialis.
C) Oxycodone and Prozac.
D) Naproxen and OxyContin.
If Susan is a typical American child, who will be her most beloved and important relative in her extended family?
A) maternal grandmother
B) paternal grandmother
C) maternal grandfather
D) paternal grandfather
What is the leading chronic disorder for women during middle age?
C) sinus problems
D) hearing impairment
Mngada is in middle adulthood in her native culture, a nonindustrialized country. According to what is known about midlife in different cultures, we can expect that Mngada will probably:
A) not experience much of a midlife crisis.
B) experience a midlife crisis that results in serious loss of status and respect by her culture.
C) experience a midlife crisis in much the same way she would if she lived in an industrialized country.
D) experience a more severe and negative midlife crisis than she would if she lived in an industrialized country.
In a survey conducted by AARP (2004), the primary reason middle-aged and older men cited for wanting a divorce was:
A) No obvious problems; they just fell out of love.
B) different values and lifestyles.
C) alcohol or drug abuse.
Laura is in her 40s. Which of the following of her abilities will decline in the next 10 years?
A) inductive reasoning
B) numerical abilities
C) spatial orientation
D) verbal abilities
What changes in the social clock has taken place in recent years?
A) It is much more rigid now than in the past.
B) Males are much more likely to follow it.
C) It varies more now.
D) It is much less important than cohorts' effects in understanding behavior.
After menopause, most women experience:
A) prolonged depression.
B) a loss of sexuality or sexual desire.
C) an increase in psychological disorders related to menopause.
D) no known negative effects.
Recent research suggests that prayer and religious commitment are __________ ways to deal with stress.
When grandchildren live with grandparents, they are usually living with:
A) both grandparents.
B) a single grandmother.
C) a single grandfather.
D) both sets of grandparents.
A reasonable explanation for why 40-year-olds and 60-year-olds show differences in intelligence test scores is:
A) secular trends.
B) cohort effects.
C) declining IQ with age.
D) biases in IQ testing.
Stage theories of development emphasize ________, whereas individual variation approaches focus on ________.
A) biology; experience
B) similarities; differences
C) social context; genetic basis
D) variations in development; commonalities in development
In the Gusii culture of Kenya, most middle-aged adults:
A) experience a midlife crisis.
B) do not experience a midlife crisis.
C) experience multiple midlife crises.
D) experience a traumatic midlife crisis.
The empty nest syndrome implies that parents:
A) have multiple interests and activities.
B) are uncomfortable alone with one another.
C) have few interests and activities other than their children.
D) have invested too much time in activities not related to their children.
In intergenerational Mexican American families, who is MOST likely to acculturate?
Middle-aged adults tend to focus more on assessment of __________ than young adults do.
A) how much time remains in life
B) time spent in different contexts of life
C) how much time is available for enjoyment
D) how much time is spent in intimate relationships
Which of the following would Erik Erikson believe is the midlife crisis faced by most middle-aged adults?
A) Did I make enough money?
B) Was I the best spouse I could be?
C) Did I make the best use of my education?
D) Did I spend enough valuable time with my children?
Sarah, age 55, is experiencing some hot flashes of menopause and wants to mange her symptoms without taking hormone replacement. Which of the following alternatives could she try as has research shown it to be effective in reducing the number of hot flashes in middle-aged women?
As we age, our level of spirituality:
C) remains the same.
D) increases, but only in those who have chronic health concerns.