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At the end of the Civil War, freedmen were given the right to vote, but no real economic stake in society. In the circumstances of the time, if you

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At the end of the Civil War, freedmen were given the right to vote, but no real economic stake in society. In the circumstances of the time, if you had to make a choice, which do you think should have had the greatest emphasis - economic self-sufficiency or political rights? Explain why.I attached the information.

At the end of the Civil War, freedmen were given the right to vote, but no real economic stake in society. In the circumstances of the time, if you had to make a choice, which do you think should have had the greatest emphasis - economic self-sufficiency or political rights? Explain why. Reconstruction, 1865-1877 I. Reconstruction Politics A. Lincoln's Plan Differences between President Lincoln and Congress on reconstruction of the Confederate states began as early as 1863. In December Lincoln issued a plan that would allow the formation of a new state government when as few as 10 percent of the state's voters took an oath of loyalty to the Union and recognized the end of slavery. This plan said nothing about votes for the freedmen. Lincoln hoped with this plan to win over southern Unionists and draw them into the Republican party. Republicans in Congress thought the plan inadequate and passed the Wade-Davis bill instead. This bill required that at least 50 percent of the voters take an oath of allegiance, and it excluded from participation in government all those who had cooperated with the Confederacy. Lincoln pocket-vetoed the bill, and at the time of his death he and Congress were at an impasse. See also this on Benjamin Wade. B. Presidential Reconstruction Under Johnson President Andrew Johnson , who was unconcerned about the blacks but wished to promote the interests of the poorer whites in the South, announced his Reconstruction plan in May 1865. Johnson required whites to take an oath of allegiance to the Union, after which they could set up new state governments. These had to proclaim secession illegal, repudiate Confederate debts, and ratify the Thirteenth Amendment (abolishing slavery). Whites who had held high office under the Confederacy and all those with taxable property of $20,000 or more could not vote or hold office
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until they applied for and received a special pardon from the president. During the summer, Johnson undermined his own policy of excluding planters from leadership by handing out pardons to them wholesale. The new governments created under Johnson's plan were soon dominated by former Confederate leaders and large landowners. Some of the Johnson governments refused to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment, and all showed their intention of making black freedom only nominal by enacting "black codes." Horrified by such evidence of continued southern defiance, the Republican-dominated Congress, in December 1865, refused to recognize these governments or to seat the men they sent to the House and Senate. C. Congress Versus Johnson The Radical Republicans, who wished to give black men the vote and transform the South into a biracial democracy, were in a minority in 1866. The majority Moderate Republicans wanted only to get rid of the black codes and protect the basic civil rights of blacks. The Moderates attempted to accomplish these limited goals by continuing the Freedmen's Bureau and passing the Civil Rights Act of 1866 . When Johnson vetoed both of these measures, he drove the Moderates into alliance with the Radicals, and together they overrode his vetoes. The now radicalized Republicans also moved to protect the provisions of the Civil Rights Act by embodying them in a constitutional amendment. D. The Fourteenth Amendment With the Fourteenth Amendment, the federal government for the first time defined citizenship and intervened to protect persons from state governments. The amendment stated that all persons born in the United States or naturalized were citizens. No state could deny any person's rights without due process of law or deny equal protection of the law. States that refused black men the vote could have their representation in Congress reduced. Former Confederate officials were excluded from voting and office-holding until pardoned by a two-thirds vote of Congress. The southern states, except for Tennessee, refused to ratify the amendment and Johnson denounced it, but in the congressional elections of 1866 the Republicans won huge majorities, giving them a mandate to force ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment and proceed with congressional Reconstruction of the South. E. Congressional Reconstruction In 1867 and 1868 Congress enacted its Reconstruction program over Johnson's vetoes. The earlier Johnson governments, black codes, and all other laws they had passed were invalidated. Under the Military
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If I had to make a choice in the given circumstances I would have made the choice of
having political rights ahead of economic self-sufficiency. This is because before the Fourteenth
Amendment to...

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