12. Which one of the following best describes our current knowledge about the brain and learning?
a. We know that the brain reaches adult levels of maturity at puberty, enabling young
adolescents to think and learn as effectively as adults do.
b. We know that “left-brained” individuals are, on average, more effective learners than
c. We know that learning is often associated with the formation of new synapses or the
strengthening of existing ones.
d. We know that the cortexes of rapid learners are about 20% larger than the cortexes of
15. Which one of the following reflects class inclusion as Piaget described it?
a. realizing that things that are cars can also be vehicles
b. identifying a shape as a square one day but as a triangle the next
c. understanding that some behaviors that are perfectly acceptable at home are
unacceptable at school
d. getting cows and horses confused
16. Five-year-old Becky is playing with blocks, stacking them one on top of another until her
towers eventually tumble and then stacking them again. Which one of the following best
reflects Piaget’s view of how Becky is probably learning in this situation?
a. She is absorbing information about how the environment behaves (e.g., “objects fall”)
without consciously thinking about it.
b. Because she is probably still in the sensorimotor stage, she will remember what she
learns about the blocks only while the blocks are still in front of her.
c. She is actively thinking about and interpreting the results of her actions.
d. Because she builds one tower after another, she is obviously reinforced by watching her
towers tumble down.
18. Which one of the following fifth graders most clearly shows signs of healthy attachment to one
or more parents or other primary caregivers?
a. Miranda seems withdrawn and frightened much of the time.
b. Jeffrey is self-confident and often likes to work independently.
c. Shelly has no friends and behaves aggressively toward the other girls in her class.
d. Mike seems unusually preoccupied with an attractive young actress who stars in a
popular television show.
19. Other things being equal, which student is most likely to have come from a home in which his
or her parents exhibit an authoritative parenting style?
a. Frank is well-behaved and self-confident.
b. Margaret is impulsive and disobedient.
c. Patrick is selfish and unmotivated.
d. Rhoda is anxious and unhappy.
20. If we extend research findings regarding effective parenting styles to the classroom, teachers
would be well advised to:
a. reward good behavior and ignore inappropriate behavior.
b. establish fair rules and high expectations, and provide loving support.
c. insist on strict obedience, with immediate punishment for infractions.
d. allow students to make their own decisions regarding how they should and should not
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