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____________ Lab Exercise Lesson 7: Mutation Reading: Principles of Genetics, Snustad & Simmons 2012: Chapter 13 DNA is Constantly Changing...

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Name: ____________ Lab Exercise Lesson 7: Mutation Reading: Principles of Genetics, Snustad & Simmons 2012: Chapter 13 DNA is Constantly Changing through the Process of Mutation Loewe, L. (2008) Genetic mutation. Nature Education 1(1) Video (Orient yourself to basics of mutation by watching these videos): Professor Anderson’s Mutation Video Damage to DNA Leads to Mutation Lab Exercise Go to website on Mutations are Changes in Genetic Information Explore the Concept , Animation (be sure to follow the arrows to view all the screens), Video pages. Answer the following questions: 1. Describe the experiments of Hermann Muller (use this lab website including the videos of Elof Carlson, Chapter 13 in text reading, and other resources). (Describe the experiments in detail using summarizing and citing the diFerent resources you researched (~300 words). 2. What did these experiments of Hermann Muller demonstrate? Why were these experiments important to the study of genetics? 3. Under the Problem tab of this website identify the number of point mutations between humans and chimpanzees. Take a screenshot of the highlighted diFerences and paste the image here. How many nucleotide diFerences were
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there between humans and chimpanzees in the 379-nucleotide part of the mt control region? Lab Problems 4. List all possible missense mutations that can occur in a segment of DNA encoding the amino acid tryptophan. What is the ratio of transversions to transitions if all single base-pair substitutions occur at the same frequency? 5. How can mutations in bacteria causing resistance to a particular drug be detected? How can it be determined whether a particular drug causes mutations or merely identiFes mutations already present in the organisms under investigation? Answer these questions in terms of experimental procedures. 6. The bacteriophage T4 genome contains about 50 percent A:T base pairs and 50 percent G:C base pairs. The base analog 2-aminopurine induces A:T —> G:C and G:C —> A:T base-pair substitutions by undergoing tautomeric shifts. Hydroxylamine is a mutagenic chemical that reacts speciFcally with cytosine and induces only G:C —> A:T substitutions. If a large number of independent mutations were produced in bacteriophage T4 by treatment with 2-aminopurine, what percentage of these mutations should you expect to be induced to mutate back to the wild-type genotype by treatment with hydroxylamine? 7. You are screening three new pesticides for potential mutagenicity using the Ames test. Two his strains resulting from either a frameshift or a transition mutation were used and produced the following results (number of revertant colonies):
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Lab7.docx

Name: ____________
Lab Exercise Lesson 7: Mutation
Reading: Principles of Genetics, Snustad& Simmons 2012: Chapter 13 DNA is Constantly Changing through the Process of Mutation Loewe, L. (2008)...

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