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1. If everyone in a given culture believes that some action or practice,

X, is morally right, should we agree and say that such an action, X, is, in fact, morally right? In other words, does the popularity of a belief or practice guarantee that such a belief or practice is morally right?
a) Yes, if the elders and law-makers of society (who are educated, old, and wise) all believe that a given practice is morally correct, then it is in fact morally correct.

b) No, because everything is relative to God's will.

2. Could something bebothintrinsicallygood as well asinstrumentallygood?

a) Yes

b) Noc) Unknownc) No, because it may very well be the case that everyone in a given culture has a false belief regarding morality.

d) Both (a) and (b) are true.e) No, because the popularity of a belief or practice is no guarantee of its truth.f) Both (c) and (e) are correct.

3. According to Aristotle, what is the ultimate aim of all human action?
 a) Money
 b) Honor  c) Pleasure  d) Political Success  e) eudaemonia  f) Science  g) Wisdom

4. With all of the textual considerations from our chapter on Aristotle, what is wrong with the claim that Aristotle holds a theory of the "Golden Mean" / "Doctrine of Moderation"? Why is such an interpretation of his theory not at all an accurate representation of his actual views?


a) It is based on too much theory.b) It does not acknowledge that virtues of character are habitual dispositions to have the right feelings, at the right times, towards the right objects, for the right reasons, and in correct proportions to the situations that arouse them.c) It does not acknowledge that our emotions and desires should be in harmony with reason.d) The theory assumes that Aristotle claims that our responses to phenomena should be "moderate" in all instances. The theory assumes that moderation as such leads to virtuous action.e) It is wrong in that Aristotle does not hold a simple 3-fold division of action.f) It is not an accurate representation because it does not address the complex nature of human actions and situations, all of which Aristotle goes to pains to explain.g) All of the above are correct.h) Answers (b)-(f) are correct, but not (a).

5.  How would Epictetus analyze the value of bodily pain?


a) Pain is unconditionally badb) Pain is unconditionally goodc) Pain, in itself, is neither "good" nor "bad"d) Pain is the result of evil in the world (e.g, an earthquake)e) Pain is to be avoided at all costsf) Epictetus' entire system of philosophy is designed to minimize pain and maximize pleasureg) Both (c) and (f)h) Both (e) and (f)

6. Which of the following statement(s) best expresses isthe MAIN pointof the Ring of Gyges story?


a) Pleasure is the highest goodb) Pleasure is unconditionally badc) The gods do not favor humansd) Evil is the result of supernatural forces and situational factorse) Do human beings have any motive to be moral if they could do evil without any fear of punishment?f) Both (a) and (c) are correctg) Both (b) and (e) are correcth) None of the above

7. What is the function of thumoeides in Plato's theory of the soul?


a) It pertains to just that part of the mind that tells us how to accomplish a goal or taskb) It has to do with that aspect of reason that tells us what we ought to do in order to achieve eudaimoniac) It pertains to the appetitive part of the mind—all of our urges, cravings, desires, etc.d) It pertains to that aspect of the soul that enables a person to do science and research (scientific theory).e) Both (a) and (c) are correctf) (a) and (d) are correctg) Both (b) and (d) are correcth) None of the above

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