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physical environment,
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32 A Practical Study of Argument
CHAPTER 2 . Pinning Down
and to preemptive and excessive force-precisely the kind of to
EXERCISE SET
intimidation and undermine trust-and that is just what the to
Examine the following passages to determine whether they contain arguments. For those pas-
(Michael Baur, "What is Distinctive about Terrorism?" in Pl
EXERCISE 1
sages that do contain arguments, rewrite them in standardized form, numbering premises and
the War on Terrorism, ed. Timothy Shanahan. [Chicago: O
conclusion(s). Note any subarguments and indicate the main argument and the main conclusion.
12. Since we are not under an obligation to give aid unless ai
Note: Some of the following passages do not contain arguments and therefore do not
reducing starvation or malnutrition, we are not under a
contain premises or conclusions. If you think that a passage does not contain an argument,
countries that make no effort to reduce the rate of pop
catastrophe."
explain briefly why it does not.
*1. If a car has reliable brakes, it has brakes that work in wet weather. The brakes on my car
(Peter Singer, "Famine, Affluence, and Morality," in W
don't work very well in wet weather. You can see that my car does not have reliable
ed. William Aiken and Hugh LaFollette [Englewood
13. "The source of much of California's shakiness is, as
brakes.
2. \"Everyone knows what the United States will be up to this year: Electing a new presi-
Andreas fault. On a geological map, it isn't hard to
dent. But what will Europe be up to? Here are three things Europe should focus on in
ogists call their legwork-the fault can be elusive.
2008: jobs, Muslims, neighbours." (Timothy Garton Ash, "Europeans have forgotten
below the surface along six-sevenths of California
it cuts, largely unnoticed and often intentionally
what it takes to be great," Globe and Mail, January 10, 2008)
geological feature of the state."
*3. When unemployment among youth goes up, hooliganism and gang violence go up too. You
(Shannon Brownlee, "Waiting for the Big Or
can see from this evidence that unemployment is probably a major cause of these disrup
tions. Therefore people who say gang violence is caused by drugs have got it all wrong.
14. "Of the varied forms of crime, bank robber
individual and society. The individual of co
4. Every event must have a cause. And yet the series of causes must stop somewhere. It
without saying, and he benefits society by
cannot go back to infinity. Therefore, there must be a First Cause, which is God.
circulation. The economy is stimulated, s
*5. Every religion I have ever studied incorporates a bias against women. I conclude that all
about the crime with great interest, and
skills. Good for all."
religions are biased against women.
6. "The Spirit of Sport Foundation wishes to thank its sponsors, founding partners, athletes,
(From Harry Harrison, The Stainless St
Press, 1972])
volunteers, sport leaders and leading corporations for making the 30th
Annual Canadian Sport Awards such a success." (Advertisement posted by the
*15. "Everything everywhere is perishable
Canadian Center for Ethics in Sport, Globe and Mail, March 26, 2003)
such things must be disturbed, disc
7. Either the butler committed the murder or the judge committed the murder. Since
that are unfulfilled and aversions th
the butler was passionately in love with the victim, it was not he who committed the
secure the only safety that has be
slavish domain, work at those thi
murder. Therefore, the judge committed the murder.
(Epictetus, as translated by A.
*8. Negative thinking will bring only negative results.
[Oxford: Clarendon Press, 20
*9. Background: The following passage is taken from an article about the archaeopteryx, a
16. "No one has a right to use a
type of dinosaur.
to punish another. Using su
Its [ that is, the archaeopteryx] main feathers show the asymmetric, aerodynamic form
deserves punishment: henc
typical of modern birds. This similarity proves that the feathers of Archaeopteryx must
(Robert Nozick, Anarchy,
have been used for flying.
Peter Wellnhofer, "Archaeopteryx," Scientific American, May 1990, p. 70)
17. "In diagnosis, it is often
or by ordering tests, In

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