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10701760Please help #5 and #8


40 A Practical Study of Argument
conclusion, and draw a diagram representing the argument structure. If there are subare
ments, identify them and comment on the pattern of support in the subargument.
1. There is no point in getting your first elementary education in some other language if
your native language is English, because English is the language of world business and
Unstated Premises
world scholarship, and English is the most important language a person can learn to
Arguments can have missing, or unstated, prem
speak and write fluently.
impression that the author of an argument ha
2. Individuals are not reliable in their judgments, and groups are made of individuals, so
seems as though there is some additional mate
gap-but it is not stated. Often what is happer
groups probably are not reliable in their judgments either.
premise in the argument. When you hear or
3. Virtue is something that is valued because of the kinds of comparisons we make between
one or more missing premises, you are perceiv
people. Therefore if all people shared all good qualities equally, there would be no such
fill in.
thing as virtue .
Some children argue that dads know mo
(Adapted from the seventeenth century philosopher Thomas Hobbes)
moms. That is, children infer greater know
strikes most adults as quite an unreasonable
*4. The black hole is a key scientific concept that is virtually impossible for nonexperts
realize that these children are relying on
to comprehend. The notion of antimatter is a real metaphysical paradox. And there
taller people know more than shorter
is no understanding of what causation means when we come to the context of
missing premise is the following:
elementary physical particles. Thus we can see that modern physics is a mysterious
In fact, the ordinary orange is a mir
subject indeed.
contains arsenic among its more tha
5. There must be electrons because scientific theories and calculations based on the
are dangerous. If they were, they w
hypothesis that they exist explain many things that happen in our world.
This argument was part of an adve
6. Language is necessary for communication, and communication is necessary for the
The overall thrust of the advertisen
advancement of our civilization. Therefore, language is necessary for the advancement of
naturally grown and artificially m
our civilization. And we can go on from this point. Because language is necessary for
general point of the ad is to offer re
human advancement, any attempt to censor language will restrict that advancement.
There is a subargument along t
Therefore the censorship of written materials is always wrong.
It is expressed in the last two ser
1. If natural foods such as
*7. It's easy to understand why we have an obligation to pay our taxes. It's because we
the market.
receive benefits from government activities. We have an obligation to do our part to pay
for those activities. And taxes are the way we do that. Pay your taxes.
2. Natural foods such as
8 . How could there be life without change? Stagnation is death.
Now if you look at the rea
9. Descartes influenced Pascal and Pascal influenced Sartre. Therefore, Descartes influenced
obvious fact: natural food
easoning clear
*10. If a word could mean just anything, or could be used in any old way, there would in fac
ds su
be no meaning at all. So language requires rules. To have a rule, we have to have mc
than one person following a rule. That's because a single person could make anything
wanted be right, and his so-called rule would not really be a rule at all. So private
language is impossible.

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