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Required Resources

Read/review the following resources for this activity:

  • Textbook: Chapter 8, 9, 10
  • Lesson

Introduction

The first two steps in evidence-based practice are to identify knowledge gaps and formulate relevant questions. In this writing exercise, you will be doing just that, across three types of inductive reasoning. In addition, you will be applying evaluation techniques to determine how credible, authoritative, and reliable the arguments are.

Scenario

Imagine your boss has asked you to evaluate four ideas that she is thinking of using to implement programs. You must evaluate whether these are good ideas that she can safely and immediately green-light or whether further evidence is needed. She is anxious to move forward, so she will be unhappy if you reject a good idea; however, if you approve a bad idea, she will be equally as unhappy. She has specifically directed you not to do any outside research. You must evaluate the ideas strictly on the brief passages available. She also wants to know what specific kind of reasoning is used in each passage

Instructions

Using everything you have learned from the text, as well as any other information you have gathered from your searches related to this week's discussion, evaluate the following four arguments:


For each exercise, address the following:

·        Identify the type of inductive argument and any features of the way the argument is constructed that you find relevant.

·        Explain how convincing you think the argument is.

·        Does it have sufficient evidence to allow you to suggest that she move forward with the idea or does the argument have knowledge gaps?

·        What questions need to be answered to close these gaps?

·        Does the argument contain any information that adds to its authority, credibility, or reliability?


You need to show your boss that you know what factors have to be considered in evaluating each type of argument and how well the argument meets the criteria.


Exercise 8.9 #2 & #7

1.   No moral principle can be proved a priori because there can be no a priori proof that anything moves anything to act. And morals must move us to act. —David Hume, A Treatise of Human Nature


2.   Among people who use multiple dietary supplements, fish oil/omega-3 supplements now top multivitamins in popularity. The conclusion is based on 6,012 responses collected in November from a sampling of subscribers to our free e-newsletter. Fish oil/omega-3 supplements were used by 74% of respondents, followed in popularity by multivitamins, which were used by 72%.—ConsumerLab.com


 

Exercise 9.12 #10

1.   In a study by Michelene Chi (1978), a group of graduate students were compared to a group of 10-year-old chess experts. The adults outperformed the children when it came to remembering strings of numbers, but the children clearly outperformed the adults when it came to remembering positions of pieces on a chess board. These findings indicate that having a detailed knowledge base for a particular domain (in this case chess) facilitates memory performance for information from that domain but not necessarily for information from other areas.—Schaffer and Kipp, Developmental Psychology: Children and Adolescents


Exercise 10.9 #8

Much of the water worldwide is privatized, commodified, and put on the open market. As a result, very little is left for those who need it but cannot pay for it. In a similar way, what is called the "genetic commons" is becoming privatized, commodified, and put on the open market. Thus we can expect that the genetic commons, the building blocks of life on earth, will only be available to those who pay for it, not for everyone who needs it.—Winston and Edelbach, Society, Ethics, and Technology.

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