Which of the following is true of Aristotle's model of the universe?
A. According to Aristotle's model, the
earth is flat.
B. A version of it was accepted by most scholars until the beginning of the scientific revolution.
C. According to Aristotle's model, the earth revolves around the sun, which is at the center of the universe.
D. According to Aristotle's model, the earth and the stars are made of the same fundamental substance.
Which of the following best describes Ptolemaic astronomy?
A. An ancient religious ritual involving praying to the heavenly bodies.
B. The use of the heliocentric model of the solar system along with the law of universal gravitation.
C. The practice of using detailed observations in astronomy enabled by the development of the telescope in the 15th century.
D. A series of mathematical improvements on Aristotle's geocentric model of the solar system.
Which of the following did Galileo argue was evidence for the Copernican model of the solar system?
A. A literal interpretation of the Bible.
B. Newton's theory of gravity.
C. Uniform acceleration of massive objects on earth in free fall.
D. Observations of imperfections on the moon made with his telescope.
Which of the following did not contribute to Galileo's exile by the Catholic church?
A. Even though some factions of the church supported Galileo, others thought the Copernican theory conflicted with a literal interpretation of the Bible.
B. Galileo was openly hostile to the church, and his writings appeared to ridicule the Pope.
C. Galileo's patron Cosimo de'Medici had a feud with the church.
D. Although the church allowed the teaching of the Copernican theory "as a hypothesis", Galileo insisted it was more than that.
Which of the following most accurately captures Kepler's view of the relationship between religion and natural philosophy?
A. The concept of a deity cannot be accepted if one is to investigate natural philosophy.
B. Evidence of a deity as the designer of the cosmos can be found in the laws that govern planetary motion.
C. Belief in a deity rules out the geocentric model of the solar system.
D. Whether a deity exists has no bearing on natural philosophy.