1. Rawls and Nozick agree about which of the following claims:
a) Sometimes it can be wrong to perform the
act that maximizes utility overall.
b) It is unjust for the state to tax people's earnings in order to provide education for all citizens.
c) Departures from an equal distribution of shares are only permissible if it raises the expectation of the least advantaged member of society.
d) Distributive shares should not be influenced by such chance contingencies as accident of birth and good fortune.
e) All of the above are correct.
2. Rawls might criticize Locke's social contract on which of the following grounds?
a) The parties to the contract know too much about their particular interests and as a result, the terms of the contract are not necessarily fair.
b) The contract fails to protect people's property rights.
c) The contract assumes that human beings in the state of nature remain unchanged by civil society.
d) The contract fails to guarantee the greatest good for the greatest number.
e) All of the above.
3. Rawls and Nozick both agree that ...
a) ... the law should embody no conception of the good life.
b) ... in the name of liberty, the government must provide basic necessities to those unable to procure them.
c) ... private institutions are not subject to principles of justice.
d) ... redistributive taxation is unjust unless it remedies some past injustice.
e) ... if the majority enacts it after sustained public debate, publicly funded healthcare is just.
4. Communitarians and Rawls disagree about which of the following?
a) Individuals have duties beyond their religious and ethnic communities.
b) Individuals can incur voluntary obligations through an act of consent.
c) Individuals have obligations of solidarity or membership that are neither natural duties owed to all people nor obligations traceable to an act of consent.
d) a) and c).
e) a) and b).
5. Which of the following best captures how Aristotle might respond to Locke's claim that the purpose of politics is to secure life, liberty, and property?
a) Politics has nothing to do with securing life, liberty, and property.
b) In defending the natural rights to life, liberty, and property, Locke overlooks the sense in which rights come from convention.
c) Although a political community should not neglect the life, liberty, and property of its citizens, securing such things is not the primary purpose of politics. More important is the goal of cultivating virtue.
d) Locke is correct, but he misinterprets the right to property as a right to use and abuse whatever possessions one has justly acquired.
e) Although the primary purpose of politics is to secure life, liberty, and property, politics also involves other purposes, such as teaching people how to be productive members of society.
6.How might Aristotle reply to the claim that individuals should be free to pursue their own conceptions of the good life and that participating in politics is only one life option among many?
a) Participating in politics, broadly conceived as the practice of deliberation, is actually the condition for the ability to pursue one's own conception of the good life.
b) One can only achieve the good by receiving the highest honors in the city.
c) Although the state should guide people's life choices, it should not enforce any conception of the good through law.
d) One should avoid participating in politics only if it detracts from one's happiness.
e) All of the above.
7. In which of the following ways do utilitarians and Aristotle stand united against Rawls's liberalism?
a) Utilitarians and Aristotle believe in natural rights, whereas Rawlsian liberals are concerned mostly with liberty.
b) Utilitarians and Aristotle both believe that the government should attempt to maximize the aggregate of pleasure minus pain, whereas Rawlsian believe that the government should simply protect rights.
c) Utilitarians and Aristotle start by asking what things are good and then argue that the government should advance the good, whereas Rawlsian liberals believe that the government should not advance any particular conception of the good.
d) a and c
e) b and c
8. To which of the following would Kant and Nozick agree?
a) If one is able to do what one wants, one is free.
b) To be free is to pursue one's desires so long as such pursuit does not harm others.
c) Individual rights constrain what can be done in the name of maximizing overall utility.
d) Individual rights should be protected insofar as they maximize overall utility.
e) All of the above.
8. According to Professor Sandel, if judgments about the good are unavoidable in debates about justice and rights, is it possible to reason about the good?
a) If reasoning about the good means that contending parties must share a single rule or maxim or criterion for the good life, to which one can appeal in every disagreement about morality, then the answer is "Yes."
b) If reasoning about the good means that contending parties must share a single rule or maxim or criterion for the good life, to which one can appeal in every disagreement about morality, then the answer is "No."
c) If reasoning about the good life (or, for that matter, justice) means moving back and forth between our considered judgments about particular cases and the general principles we would articulate to make sense of these judgments, then the answer is "Yes."
d) If reasoning about the good life (or, for that matter, justice) means moving back and forth between our considered judgments about particular cases and the general principles we would articulate to make sense of these judgments, then the answer is "No."
e) b) and c)
1.e) All of the above are correct. 2.a) The parties to the contract know too much about their particular interests and as a... View the full answer